This lesson introduces the Hebrew alphabet and pronunciation.
|בּ ב||bêt vêt||b v||b ḇ|
|גּ ג||gîmel||g||g ḡ|
|דּ ד||dālet||d||d ḏ|
|ח||ḥêt||Bach or (c)h-et||ḥ|
|כּ ך כ||kaf||keep ch as in Bach||k ḵ|
|ע||ʿayin||silent or eye-in||ʿ|
|פּ ף פ||pē’||p (pay) f (fay)||p p̄|
|ץ צ||ṣādê||ts as in nets||ṣ|
|שׂ שׁ||śîn s̆(h)în||set (seen) sh as in sheen||ś š|
|תּ ת||tāw||t||t ṯ|
Six consonants may have a dagesh lene in them. A dagesh lene means the consonant is pronounced harder. In Modern Hebrew, three are pronounced differently (פּ, כּ, בּ). A helpful mnemonic to remember the six consonants is BeGaD KePaT.
Gutturals were originally pronounced from the throat. They cannot have a dagesh lene in them. The Gutturals are ר, ע, ח, ה, א.
This lesson introduces vowels. They are written as pointers around the consonants.
Vowel letters were added around 6thC BC, they are known as unchangeable long vowels, or historically long vowels. They are י ו and sometimes ה א. They are known as the matres lectionis, mother of reading in Latin.
|pataḥ (c.f. פָּתַח)||ַ||אַ||a||father????|
|ḥîreq-yôd||י ִ||אִי||î||ee machine|
ḥāṭēp means hurried. The compound shewas are all vocal.
|šĕwā’||ְ||אְ||ĕ||baton, believe, buffet|
A short horizontal stroke that joins words. Vowels are often shortened.
Shows the person or thing upon which the verb is taking place [not used with prepositions]. The sign is אֵת. With a maqqēp̄, this is shortened to אֶת־. [This is only used before definite article or objects, (such as include pronominal suffix, my king)]
A dagesh forte is a dot placed in a letter, like a dagesh lene. However, it serves another purpose. It doubles the consonant. The guttural (ר, ע, ח, ה, א) cannot have a dagesh forte.
A silent shewa is written like a vocal shewa(ְ ). However, whereas a vocal shewa begins syllables, a silent shewa ends them.
When two shewas are adjacent, the first will be silent, the second vocal.
Final kaf often has a raised silent shewa( ךְ )
Accents serve a threefold purpose:
Meteg is a secondary accent. It looks like a sillûq ( ֽ ), but is found on any word.
Meteg's occasionally are placed to the right of the vowel.
A syllable is either open (consonant-vowel) or closed (consonant-vowel-consonant). Word's starting וּ is rare exception.
|Closed||Short||Long or short|
|Shewa is...||when it falls...|
|Vocal and in an open syllable|
|Silent and closes a syllable|
Nouns come in three classes, singular, plural and dual. We've seen singular.
Nouns becoming plural often undergo internal changes [opening vowels shorten, נְבִיאִים, דְּבָרִים, לְבָבִים, but for unchangeable long vowels occurs later on שׁוֹפְתִים].
Feminine nouns formed by adding a suffix, have their suffix replaced with the plural form.
|אֲנַ֣חְנוּ, נַ֣חְנוּ, אֲנוּ||we||1cp|
Like adjectives, they may be used attributively and agree in gender, number and definiteness. Usually stands after adjectives (if used). [always definite]
Like predicative adjectives, these pronouns don't take the article, but agree with the noun in gender and number. Usually stands before noun.
אֵ֣לֶּה הַדְּבָרִים - These (are) the words (Deut 1.1)
These are bisyllabic words, with a, e or o vowels on first syllable, which itself is always accented. The second vowel often sĕgôl, unless middle or final consonant is guttural (נַ֣עַר).
The joining together of two or more nouns within a sentence. Juxtaposed or with a Maqqēp̄. They express genitival relationships.
They are pronounced together, with emphasis falling on the final noun. This changes syllable stress. Long closed unaccented vowels are shortened; long open, volatised.
|3fs||הּ ָ||her||3fp||הֶן ָ||them|
|2ms||ךָ ְ||you||2mp||כֶם ָ||you|
|2fs||ךְ ָ||you||2fp||כֶן ָ||you|
|1cs||י ִ||me||1cp||נוּ ָ֣||us|
כְּ is irregular (כָּמ֣וֹנִי 1cs, כָּמ֣וֹךָ 2ms, כָּמוֹךְ2fs , כָּמ֣וֹהוּ3ms , כָּמ֣וֹהָ3fs , כָּמ֣וֹנוּ1cp, כָּכֶם2mp , כָּכֶן2fp , כָּהֶם3mp , כָּהֶן3fp )
These also have some irregular endings.
|3fs||הּ ָ||her||3fp||ן ָ||their|
|2ms||ךָ ְ||your||2mp||כֶם ְ||your|
|2fs||ךְ ֵ||your||2fp||כֶן ְ||your|
|1cs||י ִ||my||1cp||נוּ ֵ֣||our|
|3ms||יו ָ||his||3mp||יהֶם ֵ||their|
|3fs||יהָ ֶ֣||her||3fp||יהֶן ֵ||their|
|2ms||יךָ ֶ֣||your||2mp||יכֶם ֵ||your|
|2fs||יִךְ ַ֣||your||2fp||יכֶן ֵ||your|
|1cs||י ַ||my||1cp||ינוּ ֵ֣||our|
The simple active stem of a verb is the third declension masculine, or Qal. The Qal stem is listed in dictionaries. It normally has three consonants and two vowels.
The first syllable is open with a qames, the second is accented, closed and with a patah. Unless it ends with א or ה, in which case, it's open and has a qamas. אָכַל , נָשָׂא
Stative verbs may have exceptions. These describe a condition or state of being (he was great/holy/old, lie). These may contain patah, sere or holem as second vowel, זָקֵן
Monosyllabic verbs, have yod or waw in middle, which have contracted to form vowels. Called hollow or middle vowels. Listed with Qal infinitive in Lexicons. בּוֹא, שִׂים, מוּת. Some didn't contract, so middle yod etc. function as consonant. הָיָה
Strong verbs have three consonants in Qal perfect 3ms. No consonants are gutturals (except sometimes ר). Doesn't begin with י, ו, נ. Doesn't have identical second and third consonants.
Weak verbs fall into ten groups.
|8||ב ם||וּ י||שׁ שִׂ||‛Ayin waw/ ‛Ayin yod|
|9||ב||שַׁ||יָ||Pe waw/Pe yod|
Weak verbs may have multiple weak consonants, thus exhibiting peculiarities of more than one weak class. הָלַל
Verbs have two full sets of inflections: the perfect and imperfect. They indicate a complete and incomplete state of action respectively.
Vocalic suffixes (those that begin with a vowel) draw accents to themselves, unless preceded by unchangeably long vowel. Volatises second vowel, and meteg added to first (as open long vowel before v.shewa).
Silent shewas added before consonantal suffixes. תֶּם and תֶּן suffixes pull open long accents to themselves, but other suffixes aren't accented, so word is accented with meteg on the second syllable.
[Ta-ti-nu (2ms, 1cs, 1cp) make second vowel accented.]
Agrees with person, gender and number.
Can be joined with subject pronouns for emphasis. 'She gave to me from the tree'
אִם can introduce a question, and supposes a negative response. אִם־לֹא implies certainly (handbook, p105)
מִי usually stands alone or מִי־
Some stative verbs have patah, not holem as stem vowel in infinitive (שְׁכַב – to lie down).
[2fp suffix can sometimes look like 3mp ?]
Jussive, often third person (sometimes second) imperfect. Normal in strong, shortened in weak verbs. Used to express speakers desire, wish or command (may, let). נָא sometimes added for emphasis, entreaty, I pray.
Cohortative, involves first person imperfects. Sometimes lengthened by ה ָ . Used to express the speaker's desire, intention, self-encouragement, or determination to perform a certain act.
Prefixed vowels vary across stems. Suffixes and consonants remain the same. Prefix vowel is constant down forms, except 1cs אִ → אֶ, and אְ → אֲ. Vowel before נָה follows final vowel in form stem, except הִפְעִיל, and Qal is holem.
Prefixed to imperfect verbs to express narrated past. Passage often start with perfect, then waw consecutives. Sequential ‘and then’ or consequential ‘and so’.
ּ וַ unless guttural and sometimes יְ, e.g. וָאֶזְכֹּר – and I remembered. Irregular וַיֹּ֣אמֶר – and then he said.
Indicates direction or motion toward. Can be added to common and proper nouns and adverbs of direction. Causes unpredicatable vowel and accent changes. ה is never accented. Nouns may have definite article.
A dagesh forte is placed in the initial consonant of a word to link it to the preceding word. Always happens after זֶה ,מָה. And after word ending qames, qames-he, segol-he followed by a monosyllabic word.
זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם – This is my name forever.
|3ms||הוּ, ו||him||3mp||הֶם, ם||them|
כֶם, כֶן, הֶם attract accents.
Second root consonants have vocal shewa restored and lengthened (unless closed or unchangeably long). Initial opened vowel volatised due to two syllable distance from accent.
|שְׁמָר֣וּהוּ||they kept him||שְׁמָרוּם||they kept them|
|שְׁמָר֣וּהָ||they kept her||שְׁמָרוּן||they kept them|
|שְׁמָר֣וּךָ||they kept you||שְׁמָֽרוּכֶם||they kept you|
|שְׁמָרוּךְ||they kept you||שְׁמָֽרוּכֶן||they kept you|
|שְׁמָר֣וּנִי||they kept me||שְׁמָר֣וּנוּ||they kept us|
|3ms||וֹ or הוּ ָ֣||him||3mp||ם ָ||them|
|3fs||הּ ָ||her[/it]||3fp||ן ָ||them|
|2ms||ךָ ְ||you, pausal ךָ ֶ֣||2mp||כֶם ְ||you|
|2fs||ךְ ֵ or ךְ ֶ||you||2fp||כֶן ְ||you|
|1cs||נִי ַ֣||me, pausal נִי ָ֣||1cp||נוּ ָ֣||us|
|3ms||הוּ ֵ֣||him||3mp||ם ֵ||them|
|3fs||הּ ָ or הָ ֶ֣||her||3fp||ן ֵ||them|
|2ms||ךָ ְ||you, pausal ךָ ֶ֣||2mp||כֶם ְ||you|
|2fs||ךְ ֵ||you||2fp||כֶן ְ||you|
|1cs||נִי ֵ֣||me||1cp||נוּ ֵ֣||us|
2ms, 2m/fp create two adjacent vocal shewas, causing second to reduce to its short vowel. יִשְׁמָרְךָ. [If theme vowel is a or o will volatise; patah lengthened to qames]
[In poetry suffix for 3mp is often מוֹ]
Hanging/Paragogic Nun are where a nun suffix is found on an unusual form such as 2fs. They are very rare, they may be found in major pauses. It slows down the sentence. So there’s more time to give verbal form. More common in Aramaic and Arabic. C.f 1 Sam 1.14]
Sometimes additional nuns with shewa added and assimilated. Energic nun is not found in imperatives, jussives, wayyiqotal, these are found in clause-initial position. See 1 Sam 1.7
|1cs||נִּי ֶ֣||1cp||נּוּ ֶ֣|
They are verbal nouns, have no person, gender or number. Can function as gerunds (verb functioning as noun, in English -ing).
Identical to the 2ms imperative, except Hif‛il which retains ḥîreq-yôd. (e.g. מְשֹׁל in Qal ‘to rule’).
Note, unlike imperatives, Pual and Hofal infinitives exist, but are rare.
Learn, לִקְרַאת - to meet, encounter.
|Abs||מָשׁוֹל||הִמָּשֹׁל נִמְשֹׁל||מַשֹּׁל מַשֵּׁל||מֻשֹּׁל||הִתְמַשֵּׁל||הַמְשֵׁל||הָמְשֵׁל|
Participles are verbs used as adjective; or adjective derived from verb, describing participation in verb. Stem determines if participle is active, passive or reflexive.
[Joosten says Subject + ptp => imperfective. Ptp + Subject => perfective]
As nouns, though may take direct object. Insert 'The one(s) who'. Often describes activity (redeemer). Occur in absolute or construct state. ה□ֶ becomes ה□ֵ due to loss of accent.
Pronominal suffix added to construct state. [follows imperfect pattern?]
Frequent coordinate relationship and only one to use waw consecutive. Imperfect converted, often to past time indicative. Verb may be consequence or sequence. So common, governing perfect sometimes dropped.
However, some Pe ʾAlef verbs inflect differently in Qal Imperfect (אָבַד, אָכַל, אָמַר).
Final consonant is ח, ע, or (rarely) הּ not ר. E.g שָׁמַע
(There’s evidence final root was originally י)
For exams, we are expected to know definition from Weingreen and Ross (not Kelley) as well as Set Texts of Genesis 12, 15 and 17.