Syriac Mon 21 Oct 19

Syriac

Consonants

LetterNamePronounciation
ܐʾŌlep*
ܒBēṯ
ܓGōmalgive not genis
ܕDōlaṯ*
ܗHē*
ܘWaw*
ܙZain*
ܚḤēṯhush
ܛṬēṯEmphatic t, tongue raised
ܝYūḏ
ܟKōp
ܠLōmaḏ
ܡMīm
ܢNūn
ܣSemkaṯ
ܥʿĒSimilar to ܐ, but sustained with throat constricted
ܦPē (Fē)
ܨṢōḏē*Emphatic s with tongue raised like ܛ.
ܩQūpFurther back than k
ܪRīš*
ܫŠīn
ܬTaw*

Vowels

LetterPronounciation
ܰa
ܳō
ܶe
ܺi
ܽū

Dipthongs

LetterPronounciation
ܘ ܰaw
ܝ ܰay
ܝ ܳōy
ܝܘ ܶew
ܝ ܶey
ܝܘ ܺīw
ܘܗ̱ܝ ܽūī

Independent personal pronouns

Full form


Syriac
Hebrew
3msܗ̣ܽܘהוּאhe/it
3fsܗ̣ܺܝהִיאshe/it
2msܐܰܢ̱ܬatאַתָּהyou
2fsܐܰܢ̱ܬܝatאַתְּyou
1csܐܶܢܳܐenōאֲנִי, אָנֹכִיI
3mpܗ̣ܶܢܽܘܢhenūnהֵם, הֵ֣מָּהthey
3fpܗ̣ܶܢܶܝܢhenēnהֵן, הֵ֣נָּהthey
2mpܐܰܢ̱ܬܽܘܢatūnאַתֶּםyou
2fpܐܰܢ̱ܬܶܝܢatēnאַתֶּן, אַתֵּ֣נָהyou
1cpܚܢܰܢ ܀ ܐܶܢܰܚܢܰܢḥnan, enaḥnanאֲנַ֣חְנוּ, נַ֣חְנוּ, אֲנוּwe

Enclitic form

Form 11b
Form 2
3msܗ̱ܽܘ
ܘ ܀ - ܰ ܘ ܽ -(-ū, -aw)
3fsܗ̱ܺܝ


2msܐܰܢ̱ܬܗ̱ܽܘat (-ū)ܬ ܰ --at
2fsܐܰܢ̱ܬܝܗ̱ܺܝat (-ī)ܬܝ ܰ --at
1csܐ̱ܢܳܐ
-nōܢܳܐ--nō
3mpܐܶܢܽܘܢ
enūn

3fpܐܶܢܶܝܢ
enēn

2mpܐܢ̱ܬܽܘܢܐܶܢܽܘܢ-tūn, (enūn)ܬܽܘܢ --tūn
2fpܐܢ̱ܬܶܝܢܐܶܢܶܝܢ-tēn, (enēn)ܬܶܝܢ --tēn
1cpܚ̱ܢܰܢ
-nanܢܰܢ --nan
Form 1 is used after participles, adjectives, nouns etc.
Form 1b used for ‘you are’

Demonstrative Pronouns

This, these

msܗܳܢܳܐ (ܗܳܢ)hōnō
fsܗܳܕܶܐ (ܗܳܕ)hōḏē
cpܗܳܠܶܝܢhōlēn

That, those

msܗ̇ܰܘhaw
fsܗ̇ܳܝhōy
mpܗ̇ܳܢܽܘܢhōnūn
fpܗ̇ܳܢܶܝܢhōnēn
Old mpܗܳܠܽܘܟ ܀ ܗܳܢܽܘܟhōlūk, hōnūk
Old fpܗܳܠܶܝܟhōlēk

Relative (the one/s which)


msܐܰܝܢܳܐaynō
fsܐܰܝܕܳܐaydō
cpܐܰܝܠܶܝܢaylēn

Suffixed Personal Pronouns


3msܶܗ --ehܘܗ̱ܝ ܰ - -aw
3fsܳܗ̇--ōhܝܗ̇ ܶ --ēh
2msܳܟ --ōḵܝܟ ܰ --ayk
2fsܶܟܝ --eḵܝܟܝ ܰ --ayk
1csܝ --îܝ ܰ --ay
3mpܗܽܘܢ - -hūnܝܗܽܘܢ ܰ --ayhūn
3fpܗܶܝܢ - -hēn ܝܗܶܝܢ ܰ --ayhēn
2mpܟܽܘܢ --ḵūnܝܟܽܘܢ ܰ --aykūn
2fpܟܶܝܢ - -ḵēnܝܟܶܝܢ ܰ --aykēn
1cpܰܢ --anܝܢ ܰ --ayn

Prepositions

ܒܕܽܘܠ – Two of these consonants leads to an a-class vowel being added to initial preposition. ܘܰܠ Otherwise, not vowel (perhaps vocal shewa).

Uses of ܕ

To mean ‘of’ As the relative word To form subordinating conjucations To mean ‘that’, introducing indirect speech like ὅτι For purpose, ‘so that, in order that’, introducing a purpose clause.

With type 1 suffix

ܒ- – in, with, through
ܠ- – to, for
ܡܶܢ – from
ܥܰܡ – with
ܕܺܝܠ- – belonging to
ܠܘܳܠ – towards, near, ‘chez’
ܐܰܝܟ – like
ܒܰܝܢܳܬ – between
ܠܘܽܘܒܰܠ – against, facing
ܠܦܽܘܬ – according to, correspondng to
ܒܶܣܬܰܕ – behind
ܒܳܬܰܕ – after
ܒܽܠ – all of
ܡܶܛܽܠ – because of

With type 2 suffix

ܩܕܳܡ – before
ܒܶܠܢܳܕ – without
ܬܚܽܘܬ – under
ܚܠܳܦ – instead of, on behalf of
ܒܰܠܚܽܘܕ – alone, only
ܨܶܝܕ – towards, near, ‘chez’
ܚܕܳܕ – around
ܒܰܝܢܰܝ – between
ܒܝܰܕ – through, by
ܥܰܠ – upon, against, on account of, concerning
ܐܻܝܬ – there is
ܠܰܝܬ – there is not

Verbs

Pʿal Perfect

Suffixes Example
3ms nil nil ܫܩܰܠ šqal
3fsܬ̣-—aṯܫܶܩܠܰܬ̣ šeqlaṯ
2ms ܬ̇- —t ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ šqalt
2fs ܬ̇ܝ- —t(y) ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܝ šqalt
1cs ܶܬ̣ —ēṯ ܫܶܩܠܶܬ̣ šeqlēṯ
3mp ܩ- —(w)/nil ܫܩܰܠܘ , ܫܩܰܠ šqal
3fp ܝ- —(y)/nil ܫܩܰܠܝ̈ , ܫܩܰܠ šqal
2mp ܬܽܩܢ- —tūn ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܽܘܢ šqaltūn
2fp ܬܶܝܢ- —tēn ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܶܝܢ šqaltēn
1cp ܢ  ܢܰܢ- —n, —nan ܫܩܰܠܢ , ܫܩܰܠܢܰܢ šqaln, -nan
ܫܩܰܠ – he took

Pʿal Imperfect

Prefixes Example
3ms ܢ — n — ܢܶܫܩܽܘܠ nešqūl
3fs ܬ — t — ܬܶܫܩܽܘܠ tešqūl
2ms ܬ — t — ܬܶܫܩܽܘܠ tešqūl
2fs ܬ — ܝܺܢ t — în ܬܶܫܩܠܺܝܢ tešqlīn
1cs ܐ — ʾe — ܐܶܫܩܽܘܠ ʾešqūl
3mp ܢ — ܩܢ n — ûn ܢܶܫܩܠܽܘܢ nešqlūn
3fp ܢ —ܰܢ n — ôn ܢܶܫ̈ܩܠܳܢ nešqlōn
2mp ܬ — ܩܢ t — ûn ܬܶܫܩܠܽܘܢ tešqlūn
2fp ܬ —ܰܢ t — ôn ܬܶܫܩܠܳܢ tešqlōn
1cp ܢ — n — ܢܶܫܩܽܘܠ nešqūl

Used for the future, not incomplete as in Hebrew. This form also covers the Jussive. ‘He/She will/should, let him/her.’

n- not y- prefix in 3rd person. The old jussive, not imperfect took over, which is n-. Some ancient Syriac inscriptions have y- prefix and l- prefix for jussive. l- prefix found in Babylonian Talmud. L- becomes an n- through sound-shift.

No shewas, ignore grammers, they generally don’t exist.

Pʿal Participles

Pattern Pʿal Active Pʿal Passive
ms nil nil ܫܳܩܶܠ šōqēl ܫܩܺܝܠ šqīl
fs ܳܐ —ō ܫܳܩܠܳܐ šōqlō ܫܩܺܝܠܳܐ šqīlō
mp ܝܺܢ —īn ܫܳܩܠܻܝܢ šōqlīn ܫܩܺܝܠܻܝܢ šqīlīn
fp ܳܢ —ōn ܫܳܩ̈ܠܳܢ šōqlōn ܫܩܺܝ̈ܠܳܢ šqīlōn
Fills the gap where you need the present tense.

Pʿal Imperatives

Example
2ms
ܫܩܽܘܠšqūl
2fs
ܫܩܽܘܠܝ
2mp
ܫܩܽܘܠܽܘܢ, ܫܩܽܘܠܘ
2fp
ܫ̈ܩܽܘܠܶܝܢ, ܫ̈ܩܽܘܠܝ

ܐܻܝܬ , ܗܘܳܐ and composite tenses

ܐܺܝܬ

ܐܺܝܬ – There is, c.f. יֵשׁ
ܐܺܝܬܰܘܗܝ – can also suggest there exists (c.f. John 1.1)
ܐܺܝܬܶܝܗ̇

ܗܘܳܐ

Learn the paradigm for the verb ‘to be’
Suffixes
3ms(ܗ̱ܘܳܐ)ܗܘܳܐ
3fs(ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̣)ܗܘܳܬ̣
2ms(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇
2fs(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܝ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܝ
1cs(ܗ̱ܘܺܝܬ̣)ܗܘܺܝܬ̣
3mp(ܗ̱ܘܰܘ)ܗܘܰܘ
3fp(ܗ̱̈ܘܰܝ)ܗ̈ܘܰܝ
2mp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܘܽܢ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܘܽܢ
2fp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܶܝܢ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܶܝܢ
1cp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܢ)ܗܘܰܝܢ

Imperfect

Prefixes
3ms(ܢܗܶܐ)ܢܶܗܘܶܐ
3fs(ܬܗܶܐ)ܬܶܗܘܶܐ
2ms(ܬܗܶܐ)ܬܶܗܘܶܐ
2fs(ܬܗܶܝܢ)ܬܶܗܘܶܝܢ
1cs
ܐܶܗܘܶܐ
3mp(ܢܗܽܘܢ)ܢܶܗܘܐܽܘܢ
3fp
ܢܶܗܘ̈ܝܳܢ
2mp(ܬܗܽܘܢ)ܬܶܗܘܽܘܢ
2fp
ܬܶܗܘ̈ܝܳܢ
1cp
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ

Imperatives


ms
ܗܘܺܐ
fs
ܗܘܳܝ
mp
ܗܘܰܘ
fp
ܗܘ̈ܳܝܶܝܢ

Pʿal Participles

PassiveActive
msܗܘܶܐܗܳܘܶܐ
fsܗܰܘܝܳܐܗܳܘܝܳܐ
mpܗܘܶܝܢܗܳܘܝܳܢ
fpܗܰܘ̈ܝܳܢܗܳܘ̈ܝܳܢ

Infinitive

ܡܶܗܘܳܐ

Compound forms

ܟܳܬܶܒ – he is writing, writes, will write, would write
ܟܳܬܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ – he was writing, wrote
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܟܳܬܶܒ – He should write, let him write

Nouns

Emphatic form used for definite nouns. But came to be always used. The construct form in Syriac is generally redundant as they use ‘of’ instead. Peshitta OT more often uses construct form, otherwise it is more arcahaism. ܒ݁ܪ ܕ݁ܐ̱ܢܳܫܳܐ (son of man).
Two genders, numbers, butthree states.

Paradigm

SingularPlural
ACEACE
M---ô-în-ay
F-ô-at-tô-ôn-ôt-ôtô
Mܡܠܶܟܡܠܶܟܡܰܠܟܳܐܡ̈ܰܠܟܺܝܢܡ̈ܰܠܟܰܝܡ̈ܰܠܟܶܐ
Fܡܰܠܟܳܐܡܠܟܰܬܡܰܠܟܬܳܐܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܢܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܬܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܬܳܐ

The Syriac Verb

p‘al

Ground form. (Always has a-vowel in perfect, sometimes e vowel. Always e-vowel on imperfect)

’eṯp‘el

Passive ground form

pa‘‘el

Doubled

’eṯpa‘‘al

Passive doubled

’ap‘el

Causative

’ettap‘al

Passive causative

Many verbs are just in one form, e.g. to speak is doubled. p‘al is most common, fewer pa‘‘el, even fewer ’ap‘el. Doubled forms have not had letters doubled since early times. Passive all start ’et(t). Imperfect same as perfect, but added prefix, same vowels.

Shibbelets swap places with taw.

’eṯ + s > ’esṯ-

’eṯ + š > ’ešṯ-

’eṯ + z > ’ezd-

’eṯ + Ṣ > ’eṣṭ-

Weak verbs

Peculiarities in verbs beginning with ܢܢ and ܝ .

Nun tends to assimilate.

Gutturals

They differ. They like a-vowels.

ܐ

Not many verbs. They like e-vowels, and that often drops off and goes before.

Ayin ܝ ܘ

ܘ is much more common, like Hebrew.

Geminite/Double Ayin verbs

ܥܰܠ causes problems as it looks like ‘to go in’

ܚܶܒ to love

Final Yod/final-olaph verbs

These were final-yod verbs where yod dropped out.

Olaph signifies a-vowel. Like in Hebrew final-he vowels.

Adverbs and Regular Verbs with Object Suffixes

Adverbs forms with ܐ̈ܝܬ suffix

Four consonant verbs

Often take Greek verbs and steal four dominant sounds (categorical) ܩܰܬܪܶܓ
View comments
German Mon 13 Feb 17

The Article

Definite Article (the)

m f n pl
Nom der die das die
Acc den die das die
Gen des der des der
Dat dem der den den

Indefinite Article (a)

m f n pl
Nom ein eine ein keine
Acc einen eine ein keine
Gen eines einer eines keiner
Dat einem einer einen keinen

Adjectives

Adjective endings (definite)

m f n pl
Nom -e -e -e -en
Acc -en -e -e -en
Gen -en -en -en -en
Dat -en -en -en -en

Adjective endings (indefinite)

m f n pl
Nom -er -es -e -e
Acc -en -es -e -e
Gen -en -en -en -en
Dat -en -en -en -er

Adjective endings (no article)

m f n pl
Nom -er -es -e -e
Acc -en -es -e -e
Gen -em -em -er -en
Dat -en -en -er -er

Prepositions

Abbeviations

zu + dem → zum zu + der → zur von + dem → vom an + dem → am in + das → ins in + dem → im

Pronouns

Nom Acc Dat
I ich mich mir
You (s inf) du dich dir
You (s pol) Sie Sie Ihnen
He er ihn ihm
It es es ihm
One man einen einem
We wir uns uns
You (pl) ihr euch euch
They sie sie ihnen

Verbs

Strong and weak verbs

Weak verbs are regular, strong verbs are irregular

Irregular verbs

To be

I am Ich bin
you (s inf) are du bist
you (s pol) are Sie sind
he/she/it is er/sie/es ist
we are wir sind
you (pl inf) are ihr seid
you (pl pol) are Sie sind
they are sie sind

To have

I have ich habe
  du hast
 
  er/sie/es/man hat
  wir haben
  ihr habt
 
  sie/Sie haben

Nouns

Questions

Formation

Switch the first and second words
The verb is always the second element
View comments
Hebrew Mon 30 Jan 17

Table of contents

Lesson 1

Outline

Alphabet

This lesson introduces the Hebrew alphabet and pronunciation.

LetterCalledPronunciationTranslit.
אʾālêfsilentʾ
בּ בbêt vêtb vb ḇ
גּ גgîmelgg ḡ
דּ דdāletdd ḏ
הhē’h (hay)h
וwāwww
זzayinzz
חḥêtBach or (c)h-et
טṭêtt
יyôdyy
כּ ך כkafkeep ch as in Bachk ḵ
לlāmedll
ם מmēmmm
ן נ nûnnn
סsāmek(h)ss
עʿayinsilent or eye-inʿ
פּ ף פpē’p (pay) f (fay)p p̄
ץ צ ṣādêts as in nets
קqôfkeepq
רrês̆(h)rr
שׂ שׁśîn s̆(h)înset (seen) sh as in sheenś š
תּ תtāwtt ṯ

Dagesh Lene

Six consonants may have a dagesh lene in them. A dagesh lene means the consonant is pronounced harder. In Modern Hebrew, three are pronounced differently (פּ, כּ, בּ). A helpful mnemonic to remember the six consonants is BeGaD KePaT.

Gutturals

Gutturals were originally pronounced from the throat. They cannot have a dagesh lene in them. The Gutturals are ר, ע, ח, ה, א.

Lesson 2

Outline

Vowels & half-vowels

This lesson introduces vowels. They are written as pointers around the consonants.

Table of full Vowels

Vowel letters were added around 6thC BC, they are known as unchangeable long vowels, or historically long vowels. They are י ו and sometimes ה א. They are known as the matres lectionis, mother of reading in Latin.

NameSignPositionSoundIllustration
qāmeṣ (קָמַץ)ָאָfather
pataḥ (c.f. פָּתַח)ַאַafather????
ṣērêֵאֵthey
ṣērê-yôdי ֵאֵיthey
sĕgôlֶאֶemet
ḥîreq-yôdי ִאִיee machine
ḥîreqִאִisit
ḥôlemֹאֹrow
ḥôlem-wāwוֹאוֹnow
qāmeṣ-ḥāṭûpָ̄אָohot
šûreqוּאוּrule
qibbûṣֻאֻupull
[הַי ai dipthong like eye]

Half-vowels

ḥāṭēp means hurried. The compound shewas are all vocal.

NameSignPositionSoundIllustration
šĕwā’ְאְbaton, believe, buffet
ḥāṭēp̄-pataḥֲאֲabout
ḥāṭēp̄-sěgôlֱאֱelope
ḥāṭēp̄-qāmeṣֳאֳoccasion

Lesson 3

Outline

Maqqēf, אֵת, dagesh forte, silent shewa

Maqqēp̄

A short horizontal stroke that joins words. Vowels are often shortened.

Sign of direct object, אֵת

Shows the person or thing upon which the verb is taking place [not used with prepositions]. The sign is אֵת. With a maqqēp̄, this is shortened to אֶת־. [This is only used before definite article or objects, (such as include pronominal suffix, my king)]

Dagesh forte

A dagesh forte is a dot placed in a letter, like a dagesh lene. However, it serves another purpose. It doubles the consonant. The guttural (ר, ע, ח, ה, א) cannot have a dagesh forte.

  • A dot in any letter other than a dagesh lene is a dagesh forte
  • A BeGaT KePaT letter is a dagesh lene when not preceded by a vowel sound [Thus, new syllables after long vowel have no dagesh]
  • A BeGaT KePaT letter is a dagesh forte when preceded by a vowel sound (full or half)
[After vowel, dagesh not in BGDKPT letters, unless disjunctive accent]

Silent Shewa

A silent shewa is written like a vocal shewa(ְ ). However, whereas a vocal shewa begins syllables, a silent shewa ends them.

When two shewas are adjacent, the first will be silent, the second vocal.

Final kaf often has a raised silent shewa( ךְ )

Vocab

אָב - father, ancestor
אָח - brother
אָחוֹת - (f) sister
אִישׁ - man
אִשָּׁה - (f) woman
אֵם - (f) mother
אָדָם - man, humankind
אֱלֹהִים - God
בֵּן - son
בַּת - (f) daughter
יִשְׂרָאֵל - Israel
לֵב - heart
עִיר - (f) city
עוֹף - bird(s)
עַם - people
קוֹל - voice
רֹאשׁ - head
שֵׁם - name

Lesson 4

Outline

Accents, Meteg, Weak Letters and Syllables

Accents

Accents serve a threefold purpose:

  1. Mark the tone syllable (accented syllable) - if not the last syllable. Mûnaḥ ( ֣ ).
  2. Used in synagogue chanting
  3. Punctuation marks:
    1. Disjunctive accents. There are two major disjunctive accents that are placed on accented syllable. Words with these are said to be ‘in pause’. The pause may lengthen the vowels.
      1. ʾatnāḥ ( ֑  ) marks the end of the first ‘half’ of the verse
      2. sillûq ( ֽ ) marks the end of sentence before the sôp̱ pāssûq ( ׃ )
    2. Conjunctive accents.

Meteg

Meteg is a secondary accent. It looks like a sillûq ( ֽ ), but is found on any word.

  1. Meteg marks long vowels that need proper stressing.
  2. They mark short vowels before compound shewas.
  3. They can stand (with long or short vowels) before vocal shewas.
  4. They can be used with unchangeable long vowels before a maqqēp̄.

Meteg's occasionally are placed to the right of the vowel.

Weak Letters

ה and א can become quiescent (silent). א is silent if in the middle or end of a word. ה is silent when it stands as the consonant that ends the word. In such cases, they don't close a syllable.

Maqqîq

Dot inserted into final ה to show (הּ) it's a consonant, not quiescent.

Syllables

A syllable is either open (consonant-vowel) or closed (consonant-vowel-consonant). Word's starting וּ is rare exception.

This table summarises the length of vowels in syllables.
UnaccentedAccented
OpenLongGenerally long
ClosedShortLong or short
Shewa is...when it falls...
Vocal and in an open syllable
  • at the start of a word or syllable
  • after a long vowel
  • after a silent shewa
Silent and closes a syllable
  • after a short vowel
  • at the end of a word

Lesson 5

Outline

Gutturals and Article

This lesson explains gutturals and introduces the definite article.

Gutturals

Gutturals have special rules.

Gutturals cannot be doubled: compensatory lengthening of vowels

They reject a dagesh forte.
  1. Instead (for ר ע א) the preceding vowel is lengthened.
    1. a class ַ → ָ
    2. e/i class ִ → ֵ
    3. o/u class ֻ → ֹ
  2. For ה and ח a dagesh forte is assumed, but not shown.

Pataḥ furtive - Gutturals tend to take 'a' class vowels before them

A pataḥ furtive _ is inserted between an unchangeable long vowel and guttural. This only occurs at the end of a word and after a non 'a' class unchangeable long vowel. The sounds is a rushed a, it's not a vowel.

Gutturals usually take compound shewas

Usuallyֲ or אֱ. They don’t usually take simple shewas. Vowels before gutturals may change.

Definite article

No indefinite article. Definite articles don’t change for case, gender or number.

  1. Before non-gutturals use ּ הַ
  2. Before ה and ח use הַ
    1. Double by implication, 'virtually doubled'
  3. Before ר ,ע ,א use הָ
    1. Compensatory lengthening of vowel.
  4. Before חָ, unaccented הָ and unaccented עָ [and הֳ] use הֶ
  5. Before יְ and sometimes מְ use הַ
  6. A few (singular form) nouns change internally when prefixed with a definite article – vowel often lengthened to qāmeṣ
    1. הָאָ֣רֶץ → אֶ֣רֶץ
    2. הַר הָהָר
    3. עַם הָעָם
    4. גַּן הַגָּן
    5. פַּר הַפָּר
    6. חַג הֶחָג
    7. אֲרוֹן הָאָרוֹן

[Addendum

  • Definitive article on abstract nouns can be ignored. 'the gold' = gold.
  • Found on physical objects and people as well.
  • Definitive article can be vocative. [O King
]

Vocab

אוֹר - light
אֶ֣רֶץ - (f) earth
אֲשֶׁר - who, which, what
בַּ֣יִת - house
בְּרִית - (f) covenant
גַּן - garden
דָּבָר - word, thing
הַר - mountain
חַג - feast, festival
חֶ֣רֶב - (f) sword
חֹ֣שֶׁךְ - darkness
טוֹב - good
יָם - sea
מַ֣יִם - water
מֶ֣לֶךְ - king
רוּ ַח - (f) spirit, wind
שָׁלוֹם - peace
שָׁנָה - (f) year

Lesson 6

Outline

Prepositions with nouns and waw conjunction

Prepositions with nouns

Inseparable prepositions

Hebrew has few prepositions. Some are inseparable to the noun.
  • בְּ - in, by, with...
  • כְּ - as, like, according to...
  • לְ - to, for, at...
  1. Written with simple shewa before consonant with full vowel (except sometimes accented syllables).
  2. Written with ḥîreq before consonants with simple shewa. כִּבְרִית
    1. Except before יְ, becomes בִּי etc.
  3. Before compound shewas, takes their short vowel and often meteg. בֶּֽאֱמֶת
    1. Before א, sometimes compound dropped, sere added. לֵאלֹהִים
  4. Before article ה, drops consonant and takes vowel. לָאִישׁ
  5. Before accented syllables (especially monosyllable/tone and 'a' class), preposition often takes qames. [לָמַ֣יִם, לָרוּץ]
  6. [Common words with prepositions may vary, e.g. לֵאמֹר]

Unattached or independent prepositions

Some prepositions are unattached, such as אֵ֣צֶל beside, near.

מִן - from, out of

  1. Before nouns with definite article, normally appears in full and with maqqef. מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ
  2. Before indefinite nouns without leading gutturals becomes ּ מִ. e.g., מִמֶּ֣לֶך.
    1. Except before יְ becomes מִי
  3. Before indefinite nouns with leading gutturals becomes מֵ, e.g., מֵאִישׁ
  4. מִן can be used for comparison (X than Y)

The waw conjunction

And is prefixed to its following word. Similar to inseparable prepositions.
  1. וְ before consonants with full vowel (except labials פּ, מ, בּ [and ו]), e.g, וְהָאָ֣רֶץ
  2. וּ before פּ, מ, בּ and simple shewa, e.g., וּבְרִית
    1. Except before יְ, yod replaced by וִי, so יְהִי becomes וִיהִי
    2. [BGDKPT letters drop dagesh after וּ]
  3. Before compound shewa, takes short vowel and often meteg. וֶֽאֱמֶת
  4. וָ before monosyllables or accented syllables. Often reflects close connection and same class. [So, learn stress on words]

Divine names

וֵאלֹהִים and וַֽיהוָה [Also with most prepositions, except מִן.]

Vocab

Prepositions

אַחֲרֵי - after, behind
אֶל - to, into, toward
בֵּין - between
לִפְנֵי - before, in the presence of
מִן - from, out of
עַד - until, unto
עִם - with
עַל - upon, above, about
תַּ֣חַת - under, instead of

Nouns and vocab

אֵין - there is not [אַ֣יִן]
בֹּ֣קֶר - morning
יָד - (f) hand
יוֹם - day
יֵשׁ - there is/are
לֹא - not
לַ֣יְלָה - night
מָקוֹם - place

עֵץ - tree
עֶ֣רֶב - evening
פְּרִי - fruit

Lesson 7

Outline

Nouns

Derivation

Nouns are either primitive (without known derivation), derived from verbs or derived from other nouns.

Gender

Hebrew has two genders, masculine and feminine. Gender cannot be determined absolutely from form. However, feminine nouns are easier to spot. (If not obvious, a noun is more commonly masculine.)

Feminine nouns

  1. Female persons or (female) animals
  2. Nouns ending in ה ָ
    1. Several nouns are feminised by adding this suffix (מַלְכָה) [Open syllables (often?) reduce at start of words]
  3. Nouns ending in ת
  4. Nouns that refer to parts of the body that exist in pairs are usually feminine

Number

Nouns come in three classes, singular, plural and dual. We've seen singular.

Nouns becoming plural often undergo internal changes [opening vowels shorten, נְבִיאִים, דְּבָרִים, לְבָבִים, but for unchangeable long vowels occurs later on שׁוֹפְתִים].

Feminine nouns formed by adding a suffix, have their suffix replaced with the plural form.

Masculine plural nouns

  • Often end ים ִ
    • A few end וֹת [such as אָבוֹת]

    Feminine plural nouns

    • Most end וֹת (this replaces ה ָ )
      • A few end ים ִ [such as נָשִׁים]

      Masculine and feminine plurals

      Some nouns have two endings
      • End with ים ִ and וֹת

      Dual Nouns

      These are things that occur in pairs, especially organs of the body '(a pair of) ears'. Possibly some exceptions such as water.
      1. End with יִם ַ֣
      2. [fp תַ֣יִם ָ ]

      Vocab

      אֲדָמָה - (f) ground, earth
      אֲדֹנָי - Lord (’ădō-nāy)
      יְהוָה - LORD (’ădō-nāy)
      בְּהֵמָה - (f) cattle
      בָּשָׂר - flesh
      בְּתוֹךְ - in the midst of
      גַּם - also
      דֶּ֣רֶךְ - (m + f) way
      יַבָּשָׁה - (f) dry ground
      כִּי - for, that, because
      כֹּל - all, every
      כֵּן - thus, so
      מְאֹד - very, exceedingly
      מִצְוָה - (f) commandment
      נֶ֣פֶשׁ - (f) soul, living being
      עָפָר - dust
      שָׂדֶה - field
      שָׁמַ֣יִם - heavens, sky

      Lesson 8

      Outline

      Adjectives

      Gender and number

      There are few adjectives in Hebrew.
      Adjectives’ genders match their noun’s gender and number.

      Formation

      They are formed by adding a suffix and possibly modifying the vowels.

      Suffix changes

      Even on irregular nouns:
      • Mas. plural adjectives end ים ִ
      • Feminine s. adjectives end ה ָ
      • Fem. plural adjectives end וֹת

      Masculine plural adjectives [and nouns] that are monosyllable

      • With unchangeable long vowels
        • Remain the same טוֹבִים
      • Which end in non-gutturals and have short vowels
        • Retain short vowel, but double final consonant חַיִּים
      • Which end in gutturals and have short vowels (see L.V)
        • Lengthen their short vowel מָרִים

      Masculine plural adjectives [and nouns?] that are bisyllabic

      All have a qāmeṣ in their first syllable. This is volatilised (reduced to vocal shewa).
      • If initial consonant is non-guttural
        • Reduce to vocal shewa זְקֵנִים
      • If initial consonant is guttural (L.V)
        • Reduce to compound shewa חֲזָקִים
      • קָטֹן is irregular. ḥôlem→ pataḥ and nûn doubled. קְטַנִּים
      • Bisyllabic words ending ה ֶ drop their endings יָפִים

      Attributive Adjectives

      • Usually stands after their noun it describes, unless to emphasise.
      • Must agree in gender, number and definiteness

      Predicative Adjectives

      • Usually stands before the noun it completes. Add ‘to be’ when translating.
      • Will agree with subject noun in gender and number, but won’t take the article.
      • Sometimes two predicative nouns used to describe one noun.

      Vocab

      גָּדוֹל or גָּדֹל - great, large
      זָקֵן - old (of persons)
      חָדָשׁ - new
      חָזָק - strong
      חַי - living
      חָכָם - wise
      יָפֶה - beautiful, fair, handsome
      יָשָׁר - straight, right, upright
      מַר - bitter
      קָדוֹשׁ or קָדֹשׁ - holy
      קָטֹן - small
      קָרוֹב or קָרֹב - near
      קָשֶׁה - hard, difficult
      רַב - many, much, great
      רָחוֹק or רָחֹק - far, distant
      רַע - evil, bad
      רָעָה - (f) (an) evil
      תָּמִים - perfect, complete, whole

      Lesson 9

      Outline

      Pronouns

      [Add emphasis in sentence]

      Independent personal pronouns

      Often in verbless sentences כִּי־עָפָר אַ֣תָּה - for you (are) dust.
      אֲנִי, אָנֹכִיI1cs
      אַתָּהyou2ms
      אַתְּyou2fs
      הוּאhe/it3ms
      הִיא *she/it3fs
      אֲנַ֣חְנוּ, נַ֣חְנוּ, אֲנוּwe1cp
      אַתֶּםyou2mp
      אַתֶּן, אַתֵּ֣נָהyou2fp
      הֵם, הֵ֣מָּהthey3mp
      הֵן, הֵ֣נָּהthey3fp
      * הִוא in Pentateuch

      Demonstrative pronouns

      This/these

      msזֶה
      fsזֹאת
      cpאֵ֣לֶּה

      That/those

      msהוּא
      fsהִיא
      mp(הֵ֣מָּה (הֵם
      fp(הֵ֣נָּה (הֵן

      Demonstrative pronouns used attributively

      Like adjectives, they may be used attributively and agree in gender, number and definiteness. Usually stands after adjectives (if used). [always definite]

      הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָה הַזֹּאת - this good land (Deut 4.22)

      Demonstrative pronouns used predicatively

      Like predicative adjectives, these pronouns don't take the article, but agree with the noun in gender and number. Usually stands before noun.

      אֵ֣לֶּה הַדְּבָרִים - These (are) the words (Deut 1.1)

      Vocab

      אֶ֣בֶן - (f) stone
      דּוֹר - generation
      יְרוּשָׁלַ֣יִם or יְרוּשָׁלַ֣םִ - Jerusalem
      כֹּה - thus
      לֶ֣חֶם - bread
      מִדְבָּר - wilderness, desert
      מָה - What?
      מִי - Who?
      מִשְׁפָּט - judgement, justice
      משֶׁה - Moses
      נָבִיא - prophet
      נַ֣עַר - lad, youth
      נַעֲרָה - (f) maiden, young woman
      סֵ֣פֶר - book
      פֶּן - lest
      רֶ֣גֶל - (f) foot
      שֶׁ֣מֶן - oil, fat
      תּוֹרָה - (f) law, instruction

      Lesson 10

      Segholates and the Construct relationship

      Segholates

      These are bisyllabic words, with a, e or o vowels on first syllable, which itself is always accented. The second vowel often sĕgôl, unless middle or final consonant is guttural (נַ֣עַר).

      Forming segholate plurals that begin without a guttural

      • Masculine nouns ְ ָ ִים, e.g. בְּגָדִים - garments
      • Feminine nouns ְ ָ וֹת (usually), e.g. דְּלָתוֹת - doors

      Forming segholate plurals that begin with a guttural

      Similar, but gutturals take composite shewas. Masculine nouns, חֲסָדִים - mercies. Feminine nouns, אֲבָנִים - stones (unusual masculine ending in example).

      Dual endings

      קֶ֣רֶן → קַרְנַ֣יִם - (two) horns

      Construct Relationship

      Construct State

      Hebrew nouns have an absolute state (used in dictionaries) and a construct state. Construct states shorten the absolute state.

      Construct relationship

      The joining together of two or more nouns within a sentence. Juxtaposed or with a Maqqēp̄. They express genitival relationships.

      They are pronounced together, with emphasis falling on the final noun. This changes syllable stress. Long closed unaccented vowels are shortened; long open, volatised.

      Formation of Construct Plural Nouns

      Changes to Masculine plural

      Endings change, and open long vowels are usually volatised.
      ים ִ to י ֵ
      בָּנִים →בְּנֵי - sons of

      Volatisation

      If volatilisation results in two vocal shewas at beginning of construct, the first vowel is raised to a full vowel. N.b. unchangable long vowels remain unchanged.
      אֲנָשִׁים → אַנְשֵׁי - men of

      Dual construct

      Same as changes to masculine plural י ֵ

      Feminine plural

      Retains וֹת ending. Still volatises open long vowels.

      Changes in forming singular construct nouns

      These are far more complicated than plural changes, to be certain requires a dictionary.
      1. Monosyllabic nouns with unchangeably long vowels have same form. יוֹם - day of. Plural may be irregular.
      2. Monosyllabic nouns with short vowel have same form in singular. עַם - people of.
      3. Monosyllabic nouns with changeably long vowels usually shorten them. בֶּן
      4. אָב and אָח are irregular. אֲבִי and אֲחִי
      5. Bisyllabic nouns with the first open and second closed reduce first vowel to vocal shewa and shorten second (except unchangeably long). דְּבַר
      6. Bisyllabic nouns with both closed syllables will shorten long vowel at end.מִדְבַּר
      7. Segholates remain the same
      8. Feminine nouns ending in ה ָ change to ת ַ (plus volatise) e.g. שְׁנַת
      9. Nouns like בַּ֣יִת become בֵּית [diphthongs י ַ and ו ָ ]
        1. E.g. עַ֫יִן → עֵינ
        2. [Also מָ֣וֶת becomes מוֹת; C.f. תָּ֣וֶךְ]
      10. [Nouns ending ה ֶ have cons ה ֵ ]

      No definite articles

      Construct state nouns never take the definite article. When translating follow the definiteness of the absolute noun. [Names are always definite, so construct will take a definite article]. יוֹם יְהוָה - the day of the LORD, יוֹם חֹ֣שֶׁךְ - a day of darkness.

      Nothing comes between nouns in construct relationship

      Use context to determine adjective's noun. בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת - the son of this woman. [סוּסַת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ הַטוֹבָה – the good mare of the king]

      Meanings of construct relationship

      1. Location or origin of person of thing
      2. Further description or identification of place or thing
      3. Most frequently show possession or ownership

      Vocab

      אֹ֣הֶל - tent
      אֱמֶת - (f) truth
      אֵשׁ - (f) fire
      דָּם - blood
      זָהָב - gold
      חַיָּה - (f) living thing, animal
      חָכְמָה - (f) wisdom
      חֶ֣סֶד - goodness, kindness
      יַ֣יִן - wine
      כּוֹכָב - star
      כֶּ֣סֶף - silver
      מַלְכָּה - (f) queen
      מִצְרַ֣יִם - Egypt
      סוּס - horse
      עֵת - (f) time
      רֵעַ - friend
      פֶּה - mouth
      תְּהוֹם - (f) great deep, abyss

      Lesson 11

      Pronominal suffixes and nouns

      Pronominal suffixes for prepositions

      For inseparable prepositions בְּ and לְ

      3msוֹhim3mpהֶם ָthem
      3fsהּ ָher3fpהֶן ָthem
      2msךָ ְyou2mpכֶם ָyou
      2fsךְ ָyou2fpכֶן ָyou
      1csי ִme1cpנוּ ָ֣us

      כְּ is irregular (כָּמ֣וֹנִי 1cs, כָּמ֣וֹךָ 2ms, כָּמוֹךְ2fs , כָּמ֣וֹהוּ3ms , כָּמ֣וֹהָ3fs , כָּמ֣וֹנוּ1cp, כָּכֶם2mp , כָּכֶן2fp , כָּהֶם3mp , כָּהֶן3fp )

      Prepositions that take a dagesh forte

      These also have some irregular endings.

      • אֵת - with (not direct object). This like some prepositions takes a dagesh forte (אִתּוֹ 3ms…)
      • לְבַד - alone, by oneself, by itself (lit. in separation) (לְבַדִּי 1cs…)
      • עִם - with ( עִמִּי, also עִמָּדִי 1cs…)

      מִן – irregular

      • מִן - from, away from, more than. Duplicates מִן־מִן־נִי, but not always (מִמֶּ֣נִּי 1cs, מִמְּךָ 2ms ... מִמֶּ֣נּוּ 3ms/1cp... מִכֶּם 2mp, מֵהֶם 3mp)

      Prepositions with the same pronominal suffixes as plural nouns

      • לִפְנֵי becomes לְפָנַי 1cs (before me, lit. to the face of)…
        • Opening vowel volatised
      • אֶל and עַל (and אַחֲרֵי)
        • Long vowel in first syllable
        • Volatised before heavy suffix אֲלֵיכֶם (2/3p)
        • אֶל becomes אֵלַי
        • עַל becomes עָלָין

      Particles – Slightly irregular

      • אֵת - sign of direct object.
        • No dagesh (c.f. אֵת – with). אֹתוֹ (his)
        • no הֶ in 3p אֹתָם
        • 2p volatises אֶתְכֶם
      • הִנֵּה ,הֵן - Behold
        • הִנֶּ֣נִּי or הִנְנִי (1cs);הִנְּךָ (2ms)

      Pronominal suffixes for nouns

      Added to nouns in the construct state. Always definite, despite no article, so adjectives will have article. [May volatise vowels. דְּבַרוֹ and דְּבַרְכֶם
      Heavy suffixes (3mp, 3fp, 2mp, 2fp?) leads to further vowel reduction.
      Check accents, Week 3.D
      ]

      Singular nouns

      3msוֹhis3mpם ָtheir
      3fsהּ ָher3fpן ָtheir
      2msךָ ְyour2mpכֶם ְyour
      2fsךְ ֵyour2fpכֶן ְyour
      1csי ִmy1cpנוּ ֵ֣our
      [Irregular sometimes הֵם ָ s3mp and הֵן ָ s3mf
      and 3ms ה ֹ
      ]

      Plural nouns

      SuffixSuffix
      3msיו ָhis3mpיהֶם ֵtheir
      3fsיהָ ֶ֣her3fpיהֶן ֵtheir
      2msיךָ ֶ֣your2mpיכֶם ֵyour
      2fsיִךְ ַ֣your2fpיכֶן ֵyour
      1csי ַmy1cpינוּ ֵ֣our

      Irregular

      Several nouns show irregularies with pronominal suffixes.
      אָבִי – my father
      אָחִי – my brother
      [בֵּיִתְךָ]
      יָד remains יָד

      Vocab

      אָהַב - he loved
      אָמַר - he said
      בָּרָא - he created
      הָיָה - he was, became
      הָלַךְ - he walked, went
      יָדַע - he knew
      יַחְדָּו - together
      יֶ֣לֶד - child
      כָּבוֹד - glory, honour
      תֵּבָה - (f) ark
      עוֹד - again, yet, still
      עַל־פְּנֵי - over, above
      עַתָּה - now
      פֹּה - here
      צְבָאוֹת - hosts, armies
      שַׁבָּת - (m&f) Sabbath
      שָׁם - there
      שְׁנֵיהֶם - the two of them

      Lesson 12

      Verbs

      General overview of verbs

      Qal stem

      The simple active stem of a verb is the third declension masculine, or Qal. The Qal stem is listed in dictionaries. It normally has three consonants and two vowels.

      The first syllable is open with a qames, the second is accented, closed and with a patah. Unless it ends with א or ה, in which case, it's open and has a qamas. אָכַל , נָשָׂא

      Stative verbs

      Stative verbs may have exceptions. These describe a condition or state of being (he was great/holy/old, lie). These may contain patah, sere or holem as second vowel, זָקֵן

      Monosyllable verbs

      Monosyllabic verbs, have yod or waw in middle, which have contracted to form vowels. Called hollow or middle vowels. Listed with Qal infinitive in Lexicons. בּוֹא, שִׂים, מוּת. Some didn't contract, so middle yod etc. function as consonant. הָיָה

      Strong and weak verbs

      Verbs are either strong or weak. Weak means irregular.

      Strong verbs have three consonants in Qal perfect 3ms. No consonants are gutturals (except sometimes ר). Doesn't begin with י, ו, נ. Doesn't have identical second and third consonants.

      Weak verbs fall into ten groups.

      לעַפָּParadigm verb
      1דמַעָPe Guttural
      2לאַשָׁ‛Ayin Guttural
      3חלַשָׁLamed Guttural
      4לכַאָPe ’Alêf
      5אצָמָLamed ’Alêf
      6הנָבָּLamed He
      7לפַנָPe Nun
      8ב םוּ ישׁ שִׂ‛Ayin waw/ ‛Ayin yod
      9בשַׁיָPe waw/Pe yod
      10בבַסָDouble ‛ayin

      Doubly weak verbs

      Weak verbs may have multiple weak consonants, thus exhibiting peculiarities of more than one weak class. הָלַל

      Time tense

      Determined by context.

      Qal Perfect of Strong Verbs

      Verbs have two full sets of inflections: the perfect and imperfect. They indicate a complete and incomplete state of action respectively.

      The perfect suffixes for weak and strong verbs (in all stems) are:
      3msnonehe3cpוּthey
      3fsה ָshe
      2msתָּyou2mpתֶּםyou
      2fsתְּyou2fsתֶּןyou
      1csתִּיI1cpנוּwe

      Example with vocalisation changes

      3msשָׁמַרhe3cpשָֽׁמְרוּthey
      3fsשָֽׁמְרָהshe
      2msשָׁמַ֣רְתָּyou2mpשְׁמַרְתֶּםyou
      2fsשָׁמַרְתְּyou2fsשְׁמַרְתֶּןyou
      1csשָׁמַ֣רְתִּיI1cpשָׁמַ֣רְנוּwe

      Vocalic suffixes (those that begin with a vowel) draw accents to themselves, unless preceded by unchangeably long vowel. Volatises second vowel, and meteg added to first (as open long vowel before v.shewa).

      Silent shewas added before consonantal suffixes. תֶּם and תֶּן suffixes pull open long accents to themselves, but other suffixes aren't accented, so word is accented with meteg on the second syllable.

      [Ta-ti-nu (2ms, 1cs, 1cp) make second vowel accented.]

      The Meaning of the Perfect

      • A simple action completed in the past (aorist)
      • Past perfect. An action completed before a point of reference in the past. (Pluperfect)
      • In the present tense, as a verb of perception, attitude, disposition, or mental or physical state of being.
      • If prefixed with waw conjunction, usually indicates future tense.

      Agrees with person, gender and number.

      Can be joined with subject pronouns for emphasis. 'She gave to me from the tree'

      Word order in verbal sentences

      Sentences follows verb, subject then object. Unless emphasising the part of speech placed first.

      Vocab

      אוֹ - or
      אוֹת - sign
      אֵל - God
      הִנֵּה ,הֵן - behold
      זֶ֣רַע - seed
      חֲצִי - half
      לָקַח - he took
      מָלַךְ - he reigned, became king
      מָצָא - he found
      נָפַל - he fell
      עָבַד - he served
      עָלָה - he went up
      פָּקַד - he visited, appointed
      קָרָא - he called, announced, read
      שָׁכַב - he lay down
      שָׁלַח - he sent
      שָׁמַע - he heard, obeyed
      שָׁמַר - he kept

      Lesson 13

      Interrogative Sentences and Numerals

      Interrogative Sentences

      Closed questions

      Closed questions introduced with ה. (Is, do, am, shall [was])
      1. הֲ Before full vowel, non-guttural
      2. הַ Before full vowel, guttural
        1. Except, הֶ Before qames or qames-hatuf with guttural
      3. הַ Before vocal shewa

      אִם can introduce a question, and supposes a negative response. אִם־לֹא implies certainly (handbook, p105)

      Open questions

      מִי who? (people), מָה what? (things)

      מִי usually stands alone or מִי־

      מָה usually joined מַה־
      1. מַה־ Before non-gutturals
      2. מָה or מָה־ (occ מַה) before ר, [ה?], א
      3. מֶה or מֶה־ [before guttural with qamas != ] before ח or ע [or הָ]

      Interrogative adverbs

      אֵי - where?
      אַיֵּה - where? [only in nominal sentences?]
      אֵיפֹה - where?
      מֵאַ֣יִן - from where?
      אֵי־מִזֶּה - from where?
      אֵיךְ - how?
      אָ֣נָה, אָן - to what place?
      לָמָה) ,לָ֣מָּה) - why? to what purpose?
      מַדּוּעַ - why?

      Numerals

      1-10

      CardinalsOrdinals
      MasculineFeminineMasFem
      AbsConsAbsCons
      1אֶחָדאַחַדאַחַתאַחַת1stרִאשׁוֹןרִאשׁוֹנָה
      2שְׁנַ֣יִםשְׁנֵישְׁתַּ֣יִםשְׁתֵּי2ndשֵׁנִישֵׁנִית
      3שְׁלֹשָׁהשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁתשַָׁלוֹשׁשְׁלשׁ3rdשְׁלִישִׁישְׁלִישִׁית
      4אַרְבָּעָהאַרְבַּ֣עַתאַרְבַּעאַרְבַּע4thרְבִיעִירְבִיעִית
      5חֲמִשָּׁהחֲמֵ֣שֶׁתחָמֵשׁחֲמֵשׁ5thחֲמִישִׁיחֲמִישִׁית
      6שִׁשָּׁהשֵׁ֣שֶׁתשֵׁשׁשֵׁשׁ6thשִׁשִּׁישִׁשִּׁית
      7שִׁבְעָהשִׁבְעַתשֶׁ֣בַעשְׁבַע7thשְׁבִיעִישְׁבִיעִית
      8שְׁמֹנָהשְׁמֹנַתשְׁמֹנֶהשְׁמֹנֶה8thשְׁמִינִישְׁמִינִית
      9תִּשְׁעָהתִּשְׁעַתתֵּ֣שַׁעתְּשַׁע9thתְּשִׁיעִיתְּשִׁיעִית
      10עֲשָׂרָהעֲשֶׂ֣רֶתעֶ֣שֶׂרעֶ֣שֶׂר10thעֲשִׂירִיעֲשִׂירִית

      • One is an adjective.
      • 2-10 function as adjectives, but are nouns.
        • Absolute form stands before or after noun
        • Construct form must stand before noun.
      • 2 agrees in gender with noun it modifies. 3-10 take opposite gender (except ordinals), see table.
      • Absolute and construct are interchangeable.
      • 2-10 may have pronominal suffix (as nouns) in construct form
        • שְׁנֵיהֶם - the two of them.

      11-19

      • Unit placed before modified-ten: עָשָׁר Mas, עֶשְׂרֵה Fem
        • אַחַר עָשָׁר or feminine אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה - 11.
      • Usually accompanying nouns are in plural form
        • Except אִישׁ, יוֹם, שָׁנָה, נֶ֣פֶשׁ

      20-99

      עֶשְׂרִים - 20 (plural of ten).
      Adds וְ before unit. עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחַד - 21.
      30-90, tens are plural of units 3-9
      שְׁלֹשִׁים - 30 , - 40אַרְבָּעִים...

      100-4000

      100 מֵאָה (always fem) מְאַת (const) מֵאוֹת (pl)
      200 מָאתַ֣יִם (dual - pair of hundreds)
      300 שְׁלֹשׁ מֶאוֹת (masc const)
      400 אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת (500-900 as above)
      1000 אֶ֣לֶף masc (plural אֲלָפִים)
      2000 אַלְפַּ֣יִם (dual)
      3000 שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִים (note fem const)
      4000 אַרְבַּ֣עַת אֲלָפִים
      (רִבּוֹת 10,000)

      Numeral values

      (10) אֹ (1), בֹ (2), גֹ, דֹ, הֹ, וֹ, זֹ, חֹ, טֹ, יֹ
      (15*) יֹאֹ (11), יֹבֹ, יֹגֹ, יֹדֹ, הֹיֹ
      יֹוֹ, יֹזֹ, יֹחֹ, יֹטֹ
      * reverse to avoid shorthand for יהוה
      כֹ - 20 כֹטֹ to כֹאֹ
      כֹיֹ - 30 (not עֹ as it was hapax) לֹטֹ to לֹאֹ
      מֹ - 40
      נֹ - 50
      סֹ - 60
      עֹ - 70
      פֹ - 80
      צֹ - 90
      קֹ - 100
      קֹיֹ - 110

      Vocab

      אָכַל - he ate
      גָּנַב - he stole
      דְּמוּת - (f) likeness, image
      דַּ֣עַת - (f) knowledge
      הַיּוֹם - today
      הֵיכָל - temple
      חֹ֣דֶשׁ - new moon, month
      חוֹמָה - (f) wall
      כָּתַב - he wrote
      לָכֵן - therefore
      מַלְכּוּת - kingdom
      נֶ֣גֶב - Negev, dry county, south
      נָתַן - he gave
      עָמַד - he stood
      עָשָׂה - he did, made
      צֹאן - flock, sheep
      צַדִּיק - righteous one
      צֶ֣לֶם - image, likeness

      Lesson 14

      Outline

      Verbs - Remaining Stems

      Remaining stems

      קַל - Qal (Simple Active)
      נִפְעַל - Nif‛al (Simple Passive or Reflexive)
      פִּעֵל - Pi‛el (Intensive Active or Causative)
      פֻּעַל - Pu‛al (Intensive Passive)
      הִתְפַּעֵל - Hitpa‛el (Reflexive)
      הִפְעִיל - Hif‛il (Causative Active)
      הָפְעַל - Hof‛al (Causative Passive)

      Meaning example

      • He ruled
      • He was ruled
      • He ruled (with force)
      • He was ruled (with force)
      • He ruled himself
      • He caused to rule
      • He was caused to rule

      נִפְעַל

      Usually simple passive, sometimes reflexive, only occasionally similar to Qal, where no Qal exists.

      פִּעֵל, פֻּעַל, הִתְפַּעֵל

      Double middle consonant. Some פִּעֵל and הִתְפַּעֵל verb forms are similar to Qal.

      • הִתְפַּעֵל
        • Before the sibilants (ס, צ, שׂ, שׁ, [ז once])
          • Switches the prefixed tāw and consonant, e.g. הִסְתַּתֵּר.
          • Before צ the letter ת becomes ט e.g. הִצְטַדֵּק.
        • Before ד, ט, ת
          • the prefixed ת becomes a dagesh forte, e.g., הִטַּמֵּא

      הִפְעִיל

      Causative: he caused to know, he brought out. Brackets indicate verb routes not normally in the Qal stem. Some require context to understand.

      הָפְעַל

      Straightforward.

      Remaining Perfects of Strong verb

      נִפְעַל

      3s has same vowel pattern as stem name, else add prefix to Qal stem. נִמְשַׁל - he was ruled, נמְשְׁלָה - she was ruled.

      פִּעֵל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and ḥîreq as first consonant throughout. [Middle consonant sometimes not doubled if followed by a shewa and is not a BeGaD KePaT letter. בִּקְשָׁה]

      פֻּעַל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and qibbûṣ as first consonant throughout.

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and pataḥ as first consonant (after prefix הִתְ) throughout.

      הִפְעִיל

      3s same vowel pattern. Prefix and shewa on first consonant. Only 3ms, 3fs and 3cp contain ḥîreq-yôd. הִמְשִׁ֣ילָה. (Unchangeably long vowel rejects volatisation).

      הָפְעַל

      3s same vowel pattern. Prefix and shewa on first consonant.

      Vocab

      אֶחָד - one
      אֵת - with
      [בּדל] - he separated, divided
      בָּנָה - he built
      [בּקשׁ] - he sought
      בַּרְזֶל - iron
      [דּבר] - (Pi‛el) he spoke
      זָכָר - male
      כֹּהֵן - priest
      כֶּ֣רֶם - vineyard
      כָּרַת - he cut, cut off
      מִין - species, kind
      מִלְחָמָה - (f) war, battle
      נְחֹ֣שֶׁת - copper, bronze
      נְקֵבָה - (f) female
      עָנָן - cloud
      פַּר - young bull
      קֶ֣רֶב - midst

      Lesson 15

      Outline

      Qal Imperfect of Strong Verb

      Formation

      Formed merging Qal infinitive (שְׁמֹר) with set of prefixes and suffixes
      3ms□□□יִ 3mpוּ□□□יִ
      3fs□□□ תִּ 3fpנָה□□□תִּ
      2ms□□□תִּ 2mpוּ□□□תִּ
      2fsי□□□ִ תִּ 2fsנָה□□□תִּ
      1cs□□□אֶ 1cp□□□נִ
      Sometimes, 3mp suffix is וּן

      Some stative verbs have patah, not holem as stem vowel in infinitive (שְׁכַב – to lie down).

      [2fp suffix can sometimes look like 3mp ?]

      The meaning of the imperfect

      • Describe a simple action in future time
      • Frequentative use. Express repeated, habitual or customary action, past, present or future. (Appears similar to continuous aspect: imperfect; present or future continuous)
      • (Subjunctive mood) Express actions contingent or dependent upon other factors. Translate with may, can, shall, might, should, could, would... May appear after conditional particles (אִם – if though,אוּלַי – perhaps, לְמַ֣עַן – in order that...), particles expressing end or purpose (פֶּן...), or interrogative pronouns or adverbs (מָה...).

      The Jussive and Cohortative

      Jussive, often third person (sometimes second) imperfect. Normal in strong, shortened in weak verbs. Used to express speakers desire, wish or command (may, let). נָא sometimes added for emphasis, entreaty, I pray.

      Cohortative, involves first person imperfects. Sometimes lengthened by ה ָ . Used to express the speaker's desire, intention, self-encouragement, or determination to perform a certain act.

      Vocab

      אַ֣יִל - ram
      בּוֹא - to come, go
      זָכַר - he remembered
      חָיָה - he lived, revived
      מָשַׁל - he ruled
      עֶ֣בֶד - servant, slave
      עָבַר - he passed over, through
      עוֹלָם - eternity
      קוּם - to arise, stand
      שָׂפָה - (f) lip, speech, edge
      שָׁאַל - he asked
      שָׁבַר - he broke in pieces
      שׁוּב - to turn, return
      שׁוֹפָר - ram’s horn, trumpet
      שָׁכַח - he forgot
      שָׁפַט - he judged, delivered
      תָּמִיד - continuously
      תְּפִלָּה - (f) prayer

      Lesson 16

      Outline

      Imperfects of remaining verb stems

      Prefixed vowels vary across stems. Suffixes and consonants remain the same. Prefix vowel is constant down forms, except 1cs אִ → אֶ, and אְ → אֲ. Vowel before נָה follows final vowel in form stem, except הִפְעִיל, and Qal is holem.

      נִפְעַל

      Prefix יִ. Consonant נְ is assumed into consonant with dagesh forte. Infinitive construct הִשָּׁמֵר, learn.
      • Sometimes describes a simple action in future time
      • Sometimes frequentative: repeated, habitual, or customary action
      • Sometimes, actions contingent upon other elements. Jussive and cohortative.

      פִּעֵל

      Prefix יְ. Inf. con. שַׁמֵּר, learn.
      • Sometimes describes a simple action in future time
      • Often frequentative: repeated, habitual, or customary action
      • May express actions contingent upon other elements. Jussive and cohortative.
      • [Sometimes the second root doesn't get dagesh forte.
      • Waw consecutive doesn't double in yod]

      פֻּעַל

      Prefix יְ. Inf con שֻׁמַּר.
      Passive of the פִּעֵל imperfect.

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      Inf con הִשְׁתַּמֵּר. Includes תְ
      Normally Reflexive, sometimes similar to Qal, simple action in active voice.
      • An action that is repeated, customary or habitual
      • Contingent upon other factors, including jussive and cohortatives.

      הִפְעִיל

      Inf con הַשְׁמִיר. Retains hiriq-yod, except before נָה becomes sere. Vocalic suffix does not shift accent.
      Normally causative of Qal impefect.
      • Sometimes simple action in future time
      • Often used to express repeated, habitual or customary actions

      הָפְעַל

      Inf con הָשְׁמַר. Passive of הִפְעִיל imperfect (‘he will be brought’, not ‘he will bring’). Fairly rare.

      The Waw consecutive

      Prefixed to imperfect verbs to express narrated past. Passage often start with perfect, then waw consecutives. Sequential ‘and then’ or consequential ‘and so’.

      ּ וַ unless guttural and sometimes יְ, e.g. וָאֶזְכֹּר – and I remembered. Irregular וַיֹּ֣אמֶר – and then he said.

      He-Directive (ה ָ )

      Indicates direction or motion toward. Can be added to common and proper nouns and adverbs of direction. Causes unpredicatable vowel and accent changes. ה is never accented. Nouns may have definite article.

      • Common nouns
        • אָ֣רְצָה – to the ground
        • הַבַּ֣יְתָה – to the house
        • הָהָ֣רָה – to the mountain
      • Proper nouns
        • מִצְרַ֣יְמָה – toward Egypt
        • בָּבֶ֣לָה – toward Babylon
        • יְרוּשָׁלַ֣יְמָה – toward Jerusalem
      • Directional adverbs
        • שָׁ֣מָּה – to there
        • אָנָה – to where?
        • צָפ֣וֹנָה – northward
        • תֵּימָ֣נָה – southward
        • קֶ֣דְמָה – eastward
        • יָ֣מָּה – westward
      [Some today debate this is actually dative]

      Conjunctive Dagesh Forte

      A dagesh forte is placed in the initial consonant of a word to link it to the preceding word. Always happens after זֶה ,מָה. And after word ending qames, qames-he, segol-he followed by a monosyllabic word.

      זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם – This is my name forever.

      Vocab

      בֶּ֣טֶן - (f) belly, body, womb
      [בּרך] - he blessed
      גָּאַל - he redeemed
      הָלַל - he praised
      חַטָּאת - (f) sin
      [לחם] - he fought
      לָמַד - he learned
      מָלֵא - he was full
      מָלַט - he escaped
      נָשָׂא - he lifted, carried
      סָתַר - he concealed
      עָוֹן - iniquity, guilt
      פֶּ֣שַׁע - rebellion, transgression
      קָבַר - he buried
      רָאָה - he saw
      רָקִיעַ - expanse, firmament
      שָׂרַף - he burned
      שָׁפַךְ - he poured out

      Lesson 17

      Outline

      Pronominal suffixes with verbs

      Pronominal suffixes with perfects

      When transitive verbs take pronominal object, pronominal suffix added to אֵת or transitive verb itself. ‘The LORD sent me.’

      That end in vowels

      3msהוּ, וhim3mpהֶם, םthem
      3fsהָher[/it]3fpןthem
      2msךָyou2mpכֶםyou
      2fsךְyou2fpכֶןyou
      1csנִיme1cpנוּus

      כֶם, כֶן, הֶם attract accents.

      Second root consonants have vocal shewa restored and lengthened (unless closed or unchangeably long). Initial opened vowel volatised due to two syllable distance from accent.

      שְׁמָר֣וּהוּthey kept himשְׁמָרוּםthey kept them
      שְׁמָר֣וּהָthey kept herשְׁמָרוּןthey kept them
      שְׁמָר֣וּךָthey kept youשְׁמָֽרוּכֶםthey kept you
      שְׁמָרוּךְthey kept youשְׁמָֽרוּכֶןthey kept you
      שְׁמָר֣וּנִיthey kept meשְׁמָר֣וּנוּthey kept us

      That end in consonants

      3msוֹ or הוּ ָ֣him3mpם ָthem
      3fsהּ ָher[/it]3fpן ָthem
      2msךָ ְyou, pausal ךָ ֶ֣ 2mpכֶם ְyou
      2fsךְ ֵ or ךְ ֶyou2fpכֶן ְyou
      1csנִי ַ֣me, pausal נִי ָ֣ 1cpנוּ ָ֣us

      Changes before perfect pronominal suffixes

      • 3fs verbs changed ה ָ ת ַ
      • 2fs verbs changed תְּ תִּי
      • 2m/fp verbs changed תֶּם and תֶּן תּוּ
      • [2ms ending תָּ becomes תַּ before נִי]
        • [2ms ending תָּ sometimes before 3ms suffix הוּ syncopates to תּוֹ]
      [[ Read Lambert (and JM §61) on energic nun with suffix:
      The tendancy (not absolute) is thus:
      1. After indicative imperfect -> וּ
      2. After jussive imperfect -> הוּ
      3. After waw consecutive -> הוּ
      4. After cohortative imperfect -> נוּ
      Gen 6.16: תְּכַלֶ֣נָּה, תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂהָ (both appear jussives)
      Belial adds after jussive, sometimes נוּ instead of הוּ
      But Lev 4.32 (יְבִיאֶֽנָּה) c.f. Ex 35.5 (יְבִיאֶ֕הָ) Both are jussives.
      Belial says after אַל it is always הוּ
      ]]

      Pronominal suffixes with imperfects

      That end in vowels

      Same as perfect vowel endings. The 2/3mp sureq is sometimes written defectively, but still long (and accented) יְשַׁלְּחֻ֣הוּ

      That end in consonants

      3msהוּ ֵ֣him3mpם ֵthem
      3fsהּ ָ or הָ ֶ֣her3fpן ֵthem
      2msךָ ְyou, pausal ךָ ֶ֣ 2mpכֶם ְyou
      2fsךְ ֵyou2fpכֶן ְyou
      1csנִי ֵ֣me1cpנוּ ֵ֣us

      2ms, 2m/fp create two adjacent vocal shewas, causing second to reduce to its short vowel. יִשְׁמָרְךָ. [If theme vowel is a or o will volatise; patah lengthened to qames]

      [In poetry suffix for 3mp is often מוֹ]

      [Paragogic Nun

      Hanging/Paragogic Nun are where a nun suffix is found on an unusual form such as 2fs. They are very rare, they may be found in major pauses. It slows down the sentence. So there’s more time to give verbal form. More common in Aramaic and Arabic. C.f 1 Sam 1.14]

      Extra nuns [energic nun]

      Sometimes additional nuns with shewa added and assimilated. Energic nun is not found in imperatives, jussives, wayyiqotal, these are found in clause-initial position. See 1 Sam 1.7

      3msנּוּ ֶ֣
      3fsנָּה ֶ֣
      2msךָּ ֶ֣
      1csנִּי ֶ֣1cpנּוּ ֶ֣

      Vocab

      בָּטַח - he trusted
      גָּדַל - he was (became) great
      דָּרַשׁ - he sought, inquired
      דֶּ֣שֶׁא - grass
      הָרַג - he killed, slew
      זָבַח - he sacrificed
      חָזַק - he was (became) strong
      חָשַׁב - he thought, devised, reckoned
      כָּבֵד - he was (became) heavy; (Pi‛el) he was honoured, glorified
      כָּנָף - (f) wing, skirt
      [כּפר] - (Pi‛el) he covered, made atonement
      לָבַשׁ - he put on, wore
      נַ֣חַל - torrent valley, wadi
      עָזַב - he abandoned, left, forsook
      קָרַב - he drew near, approached; (Hif‛il) offered
      רָדַף - he pursued, persecuted
      שֵׁ֣בֶט - rod, staff, sceptre, tribe
      שָׁכַן - he settled, dwelt

      Lesson 18

      Outline

      Imperatives

      Only occur in second person. Express positive commands, not prohibitions. Don’t appear in passive stems. Based on second person imperfects.

      קַל Imperative

      Drop preformatives from second person imperfects. Raise first double shewa to ḥîreq. שְׁמֹר 2ms, שִׁמְרִי 2fs, שִׁמְרוּ 2mp, 2fpשְׁמֹ֣רְנָה

      נִפְעַל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה

      פִּעֵל Imperative

      Drops preformatives. Reinsert dagesh lene when required. Drop dagesh forte in middle consonant before shewa (2fs, 2mp).

      הִתְפַּעֵל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה

      הִפְעִיל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה. ḥîreq-yôd changed to ṣērê in 2ms.

      Pronominal Suffixes

      [Similar to imperfect, except ms and fp vocalisation is פָּקְד instead of פְּקֹד (Some exceptions: בָּחַן). Dagesh often not in meddle consonant]

      Imperatives with ה ָ suffix

      Adds emphasis, unlike cohortative (L15). [S Fassberg, A Shulmann argued directs attention towards speaker, like cohortative]

      Imperatives with נָא Particle

      Makes imperative more emphatic or urgent.

      Prohibiitions or negetive commands

      לֹא + imperfect = absolutely not
      אַל + jussive = mild prohibition

      Vocab

      יוֹמָם - daily
      יָצָא - he went out
      יָרֵא - he feared
      יָשַׁב - he sat, dwelt
      [ישׁע] - (Hif‛il) he saved, delivered
      מוּת - to die
      [נצל] - (Hif‛il) he delivered
      [ספר] - he counted; (Pi‛el) he told, related
      עָזַר - he helped
      עָנָה - he answered, replied
      [פּלל] - (Hitpa‛el) he prayed
      פָּרָה - he (it) was fruitful
      [צוה] - (Pi‛el) he commanded
      רָבָה - he became many, multiplied
      שִׂים - to put, place
      שָׂמַח - he rejoiced, was glad
      [שׁבע] - (Nif‛al) he swore
      [שׁלך] - (Hif‛il) he cast, threw

      Lesson 19

      Outline

      The Infinitive Construct and Absolute

      They are verbal nouns, have no person, gender or number. Can function as gerunds (verb functioning as noun, in English -ing).

      The Infinitive Construct

      Formation

      Identical to the 2ms imperative, except Hif‛il which retains ḥîreq-yôd. (e.g. מְשֹׁל in Qal ‘to rule’).

      Note, unlike imperatives, Pual and Hofal infinitives exist, but are rare.

      Learn, לִקְרַאת - to meet, encounter.

      Function

      1. Without prefixes or suffixes as in English.
      2. Often follows a preposition (see L6)
        1. בְּ temporal (when) or clausal (why) clause
        2. כְּ temporal (when, as, just as, as soon as) clause
        3. לְ introduces a purpose, result or temporal clause. (Most common preposition).
          1. Note, לֵאמֹר marks direct discourse similar to quotation mark.
        4. מִן denotes idea of withholding, restraining or refusing. Or comparative.
      3. With a pronominal suffix. Suffix may be subject or object. [Qal vocalisation פְּקֹד becomes פָּקְד]
      4. לְבִלְתִּי negates infinitive, ‘so as not’, ‘in order not’

      The Infinitive Absolute

      Never takes prepositional prefixes or pronominal suffixes. (Only ו or interrogative)

      Comparison with infinitive construct

      QalNif‛alPi‛elPu‛alHitpa‛elHif‛ilHof‛al
      Constמְשֹׁלהִמָּשֵׁלמַשֵּׁלמֻשַּׁלהִתְמַשֵּׁלהַמְשִׁילהָמְשַׁל
      Abs מָשׁוֹל הִמָּשֹׁל נִמְשֹׁלמַשֹּׁל מַשֵּׁלמֻשֹּׁל הִתְמַשֵּׁל הַמְשֵׁל הָמְשֵׁל

      Function

      Functions primarily adverbially. Few parallels with English and subtle nuances for advanced learners.
      1. Sometimes gerundial (-ing)
        1. אָכֹל בָּשָׂר וְשׁתוֹת יָ֣יִן – eating flesh and drinking wine (Is 22.13)
      2. Common. If before its cognate verb: Strengthen, reinforce or intensify verb. (Indeed, surely)
        1. פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד – surely visit (Gen 50.24)
      3. Common. If after its cognate verb: emphasises the duration or continuation of the verbal idea.
        1. שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ – keep on hearing (Is 6.9)
      4. Sometimes used as a substitute for a finite verb. (Such as after an imperative)
        1. זָכוֹר - remember Ex 20.8
      5. [If unclear, often follows preceding verb
        1. If Imperative + Inf. Abs. > Inf Abs functions as imperative
        2. If Inf Cons. + Inf. Abs > Inf Abs functions as Inf Cons.
        3. Is 7.15]

      Vocab

      אָבַד - he perished
      אָסַף - he gathered
      בִּין - to understand, discern
      בָּרַח - he fled
      חָדַל - he ceased
      חָטָא - he sinned, missed the mark
      יָכֹל - he was able
      יָלַד - he begot (children)
      יָסַף - he added
      יָרַד - he went down
      יָרַשׁ - he possessed, subdued
      כּוּן - to be fixed, firm, established
      כָּלָה - he (it) was completed, finished
      [מאן] - (Pi‛el) he refused
      מָאַס - he rejected, despised
      מָכַר - he sold
      [נגד] - (Hif‛il) he told, declared
      נָטָה - he stretched out, extended
      [נכה] - (Hif‛il) he struck, killed
      רוּם - to be high, exalted
      רָפָא - he healed, cured
      רָצָה - he was gracious, took delight in
      שָׂנֵא - he hated
      שָׁתָה - he drank
      קִרְאָה and לִקְרַאת - to meet, encounter
      לְבִלְתִּי or בִּלְתִּי – so as not, in order not

      Lesson 20

      Outline

      Participles

      Participles are verbs used as adjective; or adjective derived from verb, describing participation in verb. Stem determines if participle is active, passive or reflexive.

      [Joosten says Subject + ptp => imperfective. Ptp + Subject => perfective]

      Formation

      קַל – Active

      • Note full/defective holem (except unchangeably-long). (Pe waw/Pe yod prefer long ḥôlem-wāw.)
      • fs ends ה ָ or [vowel +] ת
      • א in Lamed ’Alêf fs becomes quiescent. segol → sere.
      • Strong Lamed Gutturals take patah-furtive.
      • Lamed He ms (except Qal passive) always have segol as final vowel.
      • Lamed He drop ה before plurals
      • בּוֹא becomes בָּא
      מֹשֵׁל (ms) מֹשְׁלִים (mp) מֹשֶׁ֣לֶת (fs) מֹשְׁלוֹת (fp)

      קַל – Passive

      • Sureq is distinct mark of Qal Passive
      • Gutturals prefer compound shewas
      • Lamed He replace ה with י
      מָשׁוּל (ms) מְשׁוּלִים (mp) מְשׁוּלָה (fs) מְשׁוּלוֹת (fp)

      נִפְעַל

      • Nun prefix is distinct mark
      • Strong Lamed Gutturals end with two patahs
      • נְ assumed into following consonant
      נִמְשָׁל (ms) נִמְשָׁלִים (mp) נִמְשֶׁ֣לֶת (fs) נִמְשָׁלוֹת (fp)

      פִּעֵל

      • Note מְ and doubling of middle consonant
      מְמַשֵּׁל (ms)

      פֻּעַל

      • Note מְ ֻ under root consonant and doubling of middle consonant
      מְמֻשָּׁל (ms)

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      • מִתְ prefix and doubling of middle consonant
      מִתְמַשֵּׁל

      הִפְעִיל

      • Note מַ prefix and י□ִ stem
      • Middle vowel verbs (e.g. בּוֹא) use sere in prefix מֵבִיא
      מַמְשִׁיל

      הָפְעַל

      • Prefix is o or u class
      מָמְשָׁל

      Uses

      As adjectives

      Used attributively or predicatively. Insert who, which, that... before attributive adjective use of participle. Insert 'to be' before predicative use. Attributive participles may take definite article.

      As verbs

      Past, present, future time inferred from context. Past participles made explicit by הָיָה; future (often immediate future) follow הִנֵּה

      As nouns

      As nouns, though may take direct object. Insert 'The one(s) who'. Often describes activity (redeemer). Occur in absolute or construct state. ה□ֶ becomes ה□ֵ due to loss of accent.

      Pronominal suffix added to construct state. [follows imperfect pattern?]

      Vocab

      [אמן] - (Nif‛al) he was faithful, (Hif‛il) he believed
      אָרַר - he cursed
      גּוֹאֵל - redeemer
      גָּלָה - he uncovered, revealed
      גָּמָל - camel
      יוֹשֵׁב - inhabitant
      יוֹצֵר - potter
      יָצַר - he formed
      מוֹשִׁיעַ - saviour, deliverer
      מַלְאָךְ - angel, messenger
      נָגַע - he touched, smote
      נָגַשׁ - he approached
      נָהָר - river
      סוֹפֵר - scribe
      פָּדָה - he ransomed, redeemed
      פָּשַׁע - he rebelled, transgressed
      רוֹאֶה - seer, prophet
      רוֹעֶה - shepherd
      רָעָה - he pastured, tended
      שַׂר - prince, ruler
      שָׁאַר - he was left, left over
      שׁוֹפֵט - judge
      שָׁקָה - he drank, (Hif‛il) he watered
      תּוֹעֵבָה - (f) abomination

      Lesson 21

      Outline

      Coordinate relationships

      Waw conjunction

      May be used on any form of verb (unlike waw consecutive, L16). Waw conjunction points on verbs as on nouns (see L6).

      Coordinate relationships

      Two or more verbs linked by waw consecutive or conjunction. First verb governs others, determining time and mood.

      Perfect + Perfect

      Does not alter second verb. Rare.

      Perfect + Imperfect

      Frequent coordinate relationship and only one to use waw consecutive. Imperfect converted, often to past time indicative. Verb may be consequence or sequence. So common, governing perfect sometimes dropped.

      Imperfect + Imperfect

      Sometimes the second verb expresses the outcome or purpose of the first verb.

      Imperfect + Perfect

      2ms, 1cs perfect accents shift to end. Indicative, cohortative, jussive, subjunctive imperfects uses.

      Imperative + Perfect

      Second verb provides a continuation of initial command.

      Imperative + Imperfect

      Second verb sometimes expresses notion of purpose or result. [‘So that’]

      Imperative + Imperfect

      Second verb often expresses purpose or result

      Infinite Absolute + Perfect

      If infinitive absolute is used as an imperative, second verb may be used as imperative also.

      Participle + Perfect

      Participle often describes impending action in near future. Perfect too translated in future time.

      Vocab

      בּוֹשׁ - to be ashamed, confounded
      דָּבַק - he cleaved, clung to
      הָרָה - (she) conceived, became pregnant
      סוּר - to turn aside
      פָּנָה - he turned towards, faced, prepared
      רָחַץ - he washed
      אֹ֣זֶן - (f) ear
      אֱנוֹשׁ - man, mankind
      בֶּ֣גֶד - garment
      בְּרָכָה - (f) blessing
      גּוֹרָל - lot, portion, share
      גֶּ֣פֶן - (f) vine
      גֶּ֣שֶׁם - rain, shower
      זְרֹעַ - (f) arm, strength
      מוֹעֵד - appointed time, place
      עֵד - a witness, testimony, evidence
      עַ֣יִן - (f) eye, fountain
      שֶׁ֣קֶר - deception, falsehood

      Lesson 22

      Outline

      Pe Guttural verbs

      Verbs with א as initial consonant probably behave as Pe ’Alêf.

      Formation

      1. Summary
        1. Same as Strong verbs
          1. Pi‛el, Pu‛al and Hitpa‛el
        2. Always different
          1. Hif‛il and Hof‛al
        3. Sometimes different
          1. Qal and Nif‛al
      2. Changes
        1. Nif‛al initial guttural cannot be doubled, so:
          1. Vowel lengthens and meteg added
            1. Nif‛al (Imperfect, Imperative and Inf. Con.)
              1. יִמָּשֵׁל (Strong), but יֵֽעָמֵד (Pe Guttural)
        2. Gutturals prefer compound shewas.
          1. Initial shewa after Pe Guttural without prefix becomes ḥāṭēp̄-pataḥ.
            1. Qal (2m/fp Perfect, Imperative and Inf. Con.)
          2. Silent shewas under Pe Guttural closing initial syllable become compound, and initial vowel clones and adds meteg. So:
            1. ֲ ֽ ַ in
              1. Qal (Imperfect, except 1cs and stative: ֱ ֽ ֶ )
              2. Nif‛al (Inf. Abs.)
              3. Hif‛il (all except Perfect).
            2. ֱ ֽ ֶ in
              1. Qal (Imperfect 1cs and stative)
              2. Nif‛al (Perfect and Participle)
              3. Hif‛il (Perfect)
            3. ֳ ֽ ָ in
              1. Hof‛al
          3. When compound is followed by full shewa, compound expands to full vowel.
            1. Qal and Hof‛al (Imperfect 2fs, 2/3mp) תַּֽעַמְדִי
            2. Nif‛al and Hof‛al (Perfect 3fs, 3cp)

      Vocab

      אָחַז - he seized, took possession; (Nifal) he was caught
      גָּנַב - he stole
      הָפַךְ - he overturned, changed (Nifal) he was changed, overthrown
      הָרַס - he broke down, destroyed
      חָגַר - he bound, girded
      [חדשׁ] - (Piel) he renewed, repaired
      חָפֵץ - he took delight in, desired
      עָרַךְ - he arranged, set in order
      אָז - then
      אַךְ - surely, only
      אֱמוּנָה - (f) faithfulness, fidelity
      בְּאֵר - (f) well
      בְּכוֹר - firstborn, oldest
      דְּבַשׁ - honey
      חֹק - (f) statute
      לָשׁוֹן - tongue
      מָ֣וֶת - death
      מִזְבֵּחַ - altar, place of sacrifice

      Lesson 23

      Outline

      Pe ʾAlef verbs

      Most Pe ʾAlef verbs

      • Most Pe ʾAlef verbs inflect just as Pe Gutturals
      • Except in Imperfect
        • Preformative vowel is segol in Qal Imperfect and stem vowel is ֱ
          • יֶאֱהָב – Qal Imperfect 3ms
        • ((Except – as with Pe Gutturals:
          • With two vocal shewas in word: first raised to patah
          • And preformative raised to patah with meteg
            • יַֽאַסְפוּ – Qal Imperfect 3mp))

      Second group of Pe ʾAlef verbs

      However, some Pe ʾAlef verbs inflect differently in Qal Imperfect (אָבַד, אָכַל, אָמַר).

      • Qal Imperfect
        • א becomes quiescent when in middle of a word.
          • So BeGaD KeFaT letters after א lose dagesh lene.
        • Preformative vowel becomes holem.
        • Stem vowel becomes patah.
        • אֹא shortened to אֹ in 1cs.
      • Specific changes to אָמַר in Waw Consecutive
        • 3ms, 3fs, 2ms, 1cp shift accent to preformative
          • often causing patah to segol attenuation. יֹאמַר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר
      • Qal Imperative
        • א is not quieseant at start of word
          • Has compound shewa (as guttral)
            • Often hatef-segol for א
          • 2fs/mp as Strong verbs אִמְרִי
      • Qal Infinitive Construct
        • As Ipt 2ms
          • Except for אָמַר with לְ
            • Becomes irregular לֵאמֹר (c.f. לֵאלֹהִים)
      • Participles
        • Same as strong, except fs may match Pe Guttural

      Pe Alef/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • These may have prefix vowel holem in the imperfect
        • אָבָה אָפָה

      Pausal forms of heavily accented words

      • A word with a short vowel in accented syllable will be lengthened when in pause.
        • אֶ֣רֶץ אָ֣רֶץ (and all segolates)

      Vocab

      אָבָה - he was willing
      אָבַל - he mourned
      [אזן] - he listened, heard
      אָמֵץ - he was strong, firm, bold
      אָסַר - he bounded, imprisoned
      אָפָה - he baked
      אָרַךְ - he prolonged
      אָשֵׁם - he committed a wrong, was guilty
      אֶ֣לֶף - ox, thousand
      גּוֹי - nation
      חוּץ - a place outside the house, the outdoors, the street
      מֵאָה - (f) hundred
      פָּנִים - face (faces)
      קֹ֣דֶשׁ - holiness, holy thing, sanctuary
      שְׁנַ֣יִם שְׁתַּ֣יִם - two f
      שַׁלשׁ שְׁלשָׁה - three f
      אַרְבַּע אַרְבָּעָה - four f
      חָמֵשׁ חֲמִשָּׁה - five

      Lesson 24

      Outline

      Ayin Guttural

      • Gutturals cannot be doubled (בָּרַךְ)
        • א ,ר (sometimes ע) have preceding vowel lengthened
        • ה ,ח, often ע doubled by implication
      • Gutturals generally take ‘a’ class vowels
        • Qal Imperfect and Imperative (patah not holem)
        • Piel Perfect 3ms sometimes takes patah not sere
      • Guttural generally take compound shewas
        • Does not apply to ר
        • Perfect 3fs, 3cp
        • Imperfect 2fs, 2/3mp
        • Imperative fs, mp

      [Waw consecutive retards accent in piel]

      Ayin Guttural/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • These have patah in the jussive
        • רָעָה in jussive = יֵרַע

      Vocab

      בָּחַן - he tested
      בָּחַר - he chose
      בָּעַר - he (it) was burned
      זָעַק - he cried out
      [מהר] - he hastened
      נָחַל - he took possession, inherited
      [נחם] - he was sorry, had compassion, suffered grief, repented
      צָחַק - he laughed
      צָעַק - he cried out
      שָׂחַק - he laughed, jested
      שָׁחַט - he killed, slaughtered
      אַחֵר - another, other
      אַחַר - behind, after
      אֹיֵב - enemy
      בָּקָר - herd, cattle
      מִגְדָּל - tower, fortress
      זֶ֣בַח - sacrifice
      מִנְחָה - (f) offering, gift, tribute

      Lesson 25

      Outline

      Lamed Guttural

      Final consonant is ח, ע, or (rarely) הּ not ר. E.g שָׁמַע

      • Without suffix, final consonant must be preceeded by patah, or patah-furtive.
        • Stem vowel changed to patah
        • Except add patah-furtive for:
          • Hifil
          • Qal Inf. Cons.
          • Inf. Abs.
            • Nifal, Pual, Piel, Hifil, Hophal
          • ms Participles
            • Qal (active and passive), Piel, Hitpael
      • With suffixes, same as Strong verbs, except:
        • Stem vowel is patah before נָה suffix
          • Imperfect 2/3fp
          • Imperative 2fp
        • 2fs Perfect stem vowel patah, not shewa
          • שָׁמַ֫עַתְּ

      Vocab

      בָּלַע - he swallowed, consumed
      בָּקַע - he split open
      גָּבַהּ - he was high, proud
      זָרַע - he sowed
      כָּרַע - he knelt, bowed down
      מָשַׁח - he anointed
      סָלַח - he forgave
      פָּגַע - he met, interceded
      פָּתַח - he opened
      קָרַע - he tore
      רָצַח - he killed, murdered
      שָׂבַע - he was satisfied, sated
      בָּמָה - (f) high place
      צוּר - rock
      קֵץ - end
      שֻׁלְחָן - table
      שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ - sun
      תּוֹלְדוֹת - (f) generations

      Lesson 26

      Outline

      Lamed Alef

      • Includes regular, stative and doubly weak verbs
        • Regular
          • בָּרָא
          • מָצָא
          • קָרָא
          • רָפָא
        • Stative
          • יָרֵא
          • מָלֵא
          • צָמֵא
          • שָׂנֵא
          • טָמֵא
        • Double weak
          • חָבָא
          • חָטָא
          • יָצָא
          • נָבָא
          • נָשָׂא
      • א becomes quiescent at end of syllable, so open vowels lengthened beforehand.
      • BeGaD KePaT letters lose dagesh lene after א
      • Stem vowel before consonantal afformatives (Perfect)
        • Qamas in Qal (בָּרָ֫אתִי)
        • Sere otherwise (נִבְרֵ֫אתִי)
      • Stem vowel before quiesent א in Qal Imperfect/Imperative
        • Except fp
          • holem → qamas
        • fp
          • holem → segol
      • Hofal preformative vowel is quibbus
      • Some fs participles are slightly different

      Vocab

      [חבא] - he hid
      טָמֵא - he was unclean
      [נבא] - he prophesied
      צָמֵא - he was thirsty
      קָבַץ - he collected, gathered
      קָדַשׁ - he was holy
      [שׁחת] - he destroyed, corrupted
      שָׁלֵם - he was whole, complete
      כְּלִי - tool, weapon, vessel
      נְאֻם - utterance, oracle
      סָבִיב - around, surrounding
      עֶ֣שֶׂר - ten
      עֲשָׂרָה - (f) ten
      צֶ֣דֶק - righteousness
      צְדָקָה - (f) righteousness
      שֶׁ֣בַע - seven
      שִׁבְעָה - (f) seven
      שַׁ֣עַר - gate

      Lesson 27

      Outline

      Lamed He

      • Without afformative, very uniform
        • ה ָ perfect
        • ה ֶ imperfect and participle
          • Except Qal passive וּי
        • ה ֵ imperatives
        • וֹת infinitive constructs
        • ה ֹ infinitive absolutes
          • Except ה ֵ hifil or hofal (sometimes piel)
          • Occasionally he drops out רָאוֹ
      • With afformatives
        • Vocalic afformatives
          • Perfect 3f final-he becomes ת
          • Other forms drop ה
        • Consonantal afformatives
          • ה becomes י
            • Active י ִ
            • Passive י ֵ
          • Imperfect and Imperative
            • י ֶ
        • [True of pronominal suffixes ??? ]

      (There’s evidence final root was originally י)

      Pe Guttural/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • Generally follow the pattern of both types of verbs
        • עָשָׂה עָנָה
      • When ה is apocopated in Hiphil, compound raised to patah (jussive)

      Vocab

      בָּכָה - he wept
      זָנָה - he committed adultery, fornication
      חָזָה - he saw (as in a vision)
      חָלָה - he was sick, weak
      חָנָה - he encamped
      חָרָה - he (it) was hot, burned
      יָרָה - he taught
      כָּסָה - he covered, concealed
      עָנָה - (1) he answered, replied; (2) he was bowed down, afflicted
      צָפָה - he kept watch, spied
      קָנָה - he took possession, acquired, bought
      [שׁחה] - he bowed down, worshipped
      אַמָּה - (f) cubit
      מַחֲנֶה - (m & f) camp, encampment
      מַטֶּה - staff, rod, branch, tribe
      מַעֲשֶׂה - work, deed
      מִשְׁפָּחָה - (f) family clan
      עֹלָה - (f) whole burnt offering

      Lesson 28

      Outline

      Pe Nun

      Changes

      • A nun supported with silent shewa is assimilated into following consonant as follows:
        • Always
          • Hiphil and Hophal.
        • Perfect and Participles
          • Niphal
        • Imperfect (and waw-con)
          • Qal
        • Hofal changes vowel o→u
      • Except
        • Before Ayin Gutturals, nun remains (נָחַל)
          • Except נָחַם

      Groups

      • Most pe nun verbs
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is holem (יִפֹּל)
      • PN+LG (inc. לָקַח) verbs and some regular verbs (נָגַשׁ, נָתַךְ)
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is patah (יִגַּשׁ)
        • Qal Imperative also drops initial נ (גַּשׁ)
      • נָתַן
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is sere Qal imperative drops initial נ
      • PN+LA
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is qamas
        • Qal imperative drops initial נ
      • All above without holem as stem vowel
        • Inf. cons. Drops נ, adds ת to form segolate
          • לְ prefix becomes לָ since it’s before stressed syllable
          • final נ assimilated in נָתַן becomes תֵּת

      Vocab

      [נבט] - (Hifil) he saw, looked upon
      נָגַף - he smote, struck
      נָדַח - he drove out, banished, expelled
      נָדַר - he vowed
      [נהל] - (Piel) he led, guided, refreshed
      נָזָה - he (it) spurted, spattered; (Hifil) he sprinkled
      נָטַע - he planted
      נָטַשׁ - he left, forsook
      [נסה] - (Piel) he tested, tried
      נָסַע - he set out, departed, journeyed
      [נצב] - (Nifil) he stationed himself, took his seat; (Hifil) he stationed, set, caused to stand
      נָצַר - he watched, guarded, kept
      [נקה] - he was clean, innocent, guiltless
      [נקם] - he avenged, took vengeance
      [נשׂג] - (Hifil) he reached, overtook, attained
      נָתַץ - he pulled down, broke down
      חַ֣יִל - strength, wealth, army
      נַחֲלָה - (f) possession, inheritance

      Lesson 29

      Outline

      Ayin waw/yod (Hollow verbs)

      • Lexicons list form of Qal Inf Cont. since in Qal Perfect middle vowel usually drops out.
        • וּ
          • כּוּן ; שׁוּב ; קוּם
          • Stative מוּת
        • וֹ
          • בּוֹא (Doubly weak)
          • Stative בּוֹשׁ (preformative vowel in Imp is sere)
        • ִי
          • בִּין
        • Either וּ or ִי
          • שִׂים שוּם
        • Exceptions גָּוַע ,צוה ,קָוָה ,הָיָה , חָיָה
      • Perfect
        • Most verbs follow pattern of קוּם (except stative and וֹ verbs)
        • Qal-Perf-3fs accent differs to Qal-part-act-fs
        • Vocalic suffixes don’t draw accents, except in hofal
      • Other inflections
        • Middle waw is וּ // ִי in most inflections, but וֹ in Inf Abs.
        • Except middle וֹ verbs
      • Preformative vowel is usually long in open syllables
        • Qamas
          • Qal imperfect
          • Nifal Perfect and Participle
          • Hifil Imperfect; Imperative; Inf Con/Abs
        • Sere
          • Hifil Perfect and Participle
        • Suruq
          • Hofal
      • Linking consonants added before נָה endings in Qal imperfect and all consonantal suffixes in Nifal and Hifil perfects
        • Qal imperfect
          • ֶי
        • Nifal and Hifil perfects
          • וֹ
        • These draw accents to themselves, especially before Perfect 2p תֶּם תֶּן
          • Volatises open syllables (e.g. Perfect; Qal-Imp-3fp)
      • ִי verbs
        • Qal appears the same as Hifil in Imperfect
      • When final root consonant = suffix consonant drop combine by doubling
        • מוּת – 2(mfsp) and 1cs (מַָ֫תִּי)
          • N.b.מַ֫תְתָּ (2ms) becomes מַ֫תָּה
      • Qal imperative fp differs
        • בֹּשְׁנָה
      • Intensive and reflexive stems
        • Polel, Polal and Hitpolel
          • Repeat final consonant and supply vowel.
          • כּוּן בִּין sere; שׁוּב patah

      Vocab

      גּוּר - to sojourn
      גִּיל - to rejoice
      דִּין - to judge
      חִיל/חוּל - to whirl, dance, writhe
      לִין/לוּן - to lodge, pass the night, abide
      מוּל - to circumcise
      נוּחַ - to rest, come to rest
      נוּס - to flee
      נוּעַ - to quiver, stagger, stumble
      עוּר - to arouse oneself
      פּוּץ - to be scattered
      רוּץ - to run
      רִיב - to strive, contend
      שִׁיר - to sing
      שִׁית - to put, place, set
      כָּשַׁל - he stumbled
      לָכַד - he seized, captured
      שָׁבַת - he ceased, rested

      Lesson 30

      Outline

      Pe waw/yod

      • Verbs beginning י or ו. Root forms look similar, differentiated only in other stems (esp. Nifal and Hifil)
        • יָבֵשׁ (pe-waw); יָטַב (pe-yod)
      • Pe waw verbs
        • Some retains yod in imperfect
          • יָבֵשׁ ; יָגַע ; יָעַץ ; יָקַץ ; יָרֵא ; יָרָשׁ ; יָשֵׁן
          • Imperfect. Have patah as stem vowel
            • יָבֵשׁ ; יָגַע
            • Forms Hiriq-yod in Qal Imperfect
          • Imperative. Some retain yod, others drop like pe nun verbs
            • יָבֵשׁ (retains); יָרַשׁ (drops)
          • Infinitive Construct. Some retain yod, others drop and add ת forming segolate
            • יָבֵשׁ (retains יְבֹשׁ); יָרַשׁ (drops רֶ֫שֶׁת)
        • Some drop initial yod in imperfect
          • יָדַע ;יָלַד ;יָסַף ; יָצָא ;יָרַד ; יָשַׁב
            • Also הָלַךְ included here
          • Inf cons adds ת to form segolate
          • Stem vowels is sere, except patah before guttural
        • Some contain sibilant
          • יָצַק ;יָצַת ; יָצַג
          • Formed like pe-nun verbs
        • Irregular verbs יָכֹל
          • Imperfetc. Retains וּ
        • Nifal
          • Waw acts as consonant (יִוָּבֵשׁ Imp 3ms)
          • Dipthong in Perfect (נוֹבַשׁ Per 3ms) and Participle
        • Piel, Pual, Hitpael
          • Usually has yod in intensive stems
          • Sometimes waw in hitpael.
        • Hifal and Hofal
          • Retains holem/sureq in stems
      • Pe yod verbs
        • יָטַב; יָלַל ; יָמַן ; יָנַק ; יָקַץ ; יָשַׁר
        • Retains yod in all forms.
          • Hiriq-yod (Qal) or sere-yod (Hifil)
        • These don’t occur in Nifal and Hofal. Only יָשַׁר occurs in Piel and Pual.

      Vocab

      יָבֵשׁ - he dried up, was dry
      יָגַע - he laboured, grew weary
      [ידה] - (Hifil) he praised, confessed, gave thanks
      יָטַב - he did well, was good
      [יכח] - (Hifil) he reproved, rebuked
      יָנַק - he sucked
      יָסַד - he founded, established
      יָסַר - he admonished, chastised
      יָעַץ - he counselled, advised
      [יצב] - (Hitpael) he stationed himself, took his stand
      יָצַק - he poured out
      יָצַת - he kindled, set on fire
      יָשַׁר - he was straight, straightforward, upright
      [יתר] - (Nifal) he (it) was left over, remained
      קָטַר - he burned (offered) incense, caused a sacrifice to smoke
      [שׁרת] - (Piel) he ministered, served
      סָגַר - he shut, close
      [שׁכם] - (Hifil) he arose early

      Lesson 31

      Outline

      Double Ayin

      • Also called geminate verbs.
        • Many verbs of this form, act as strong verbs
      • Final consonant dropped in Qal perfect, imperfect and imperative
        • Except in Transitive verbs Inf con/abs and participles and some transitive verbs in 3per. perfect
      • Transitive verbs
        • 3per. Qal Perfect sometimes doesn’t shorten
        • Linking vowel added before consonantal suffixes
          • Perfect וֹ
            • Draws accents accept in 2p
          • Imperfect/Imperative י ֶ
            • Always accented
            • With accent shifts, 2/3fp becomes תְּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה
        • Accents
          • Accent on stem vowel not afformative
          • Consonants double before afformative
        • Imperfects may appear like ayin waw/yod or pe-nun verbs.
          • Pe-Nun type
            • יִסֹּב, יִדֹּם
        • אָרַר, בָּלַל, גָּלַל, מָדַד, סָבַב, שָׁדַד
      • Intransitive (stative) verbs
        • Final consonant dropped
        • Imperfect
          • preformative vowel ֵ
          • stem vowel ַ
          • Afformatives added like in transitive verbs
        • חָתַת, מָרַר, צָרַר, קָלַל, רָבַב, רָעַע, שָׁמֵם, תָּמַם
      • Nifal verbs
        • Always shortened
        • Final consonant doubled before afformative
        • Linking vowel same as in Qal
        • Vocalic afformatives are never accented
        • Preformative vowel in Perfect and Participle is ָ unless accent shifts from stem vowel ְ
        • Stem vowel is ַ in impefect etc.
        • Nun assimilated
      • Piel, Pual, Hitpael (intensive stems)
        • Often same as for strong verbs
        • Except occasionally polel, pulal, hitpolel
          • Following analogy of Ayin waw/yod verbs
      • Hifil
        • Preformative vowel is
          • Perfect/Participle ֵ
          • Imperfect/etc. ָ
        • Linking vowel same as in Qal
          • Draw accents
            • Preformative vowels in open syllables volatise
          • Except Perfect 2p,
        • Stem vowel ֵ
          • shortened to ִ before consonantal afformatives
          • accented before vocalic afformatives
        • Final cosonant doubles
      • Hofal
        • Formed on analogy of ayin-waw/yod
      • רָעַע is doubly weak

      Vocab

      בָּזַז - he plundered, destroyed
      בָּלַל - he mixed, confounded
      דָּמַם - he was silent, speechless
      [הלל] - (Piel, Hitpael) he praised
      [חלל] - (Nifal), he was polluted, (Hifil) he began
      חָנַן - he was gracious, he showed favour
      חָתַת - he was shattered, dismayed
      מָדַד - he measured
      נָדַד - he fled
      סָבַב - he surrounded, turned about, went away
      צָרַר - he was in distress
      רָנַן - he shouted for joy, cried out
      שָׁדַד - he devastated, destroyed
      שָׁמַם - he was appalled, devastated
      תָּמַם - he (it) was completed
      גְּבוּל - boundary, border
      גִּבּוֹר - hero, mighty one
      קֶ֣שֶׁת - (f) bow

      Composition

      Composition

      For exams, we are expected to know definition from Weingreen and Ross (not Kelley) as well as Set Texts of Genesis 12, 15 and 17.

      Nouns

      • Learn irregular nouns: הָ/הָר
      • Abstract nouns are often feminine, land, belief Gen 15.6-7.
      • Use context to identify collective nouns: sheep, birds (Gen 15.11)

      Translation

      • לֵאמֹר translate as saying, although today often translated opening quotation (, “)
        • וַיֹּאמַר at start of direct speech (semi-pausal)
      • Normally דִּבֵּר + אֶל־ not לְ +. However אָמַר + לְ. “Spoke/said to” (usually)
        • Likewise, קָרָא + אֶל־ or + לְ, not often אֶת־
        • אֶל (verb of direction, motion) for direction not ְל
          • Directive-he takes אֶל not ְל
      • Dative verbs
        • give to - נתן + לְ
        • prayed to – לְ ; e.g, פָּלַל לַיהוה [often, not always]
        • [to do, Week 3.E.4]
      • Don't write pronominal suffix with verbs, instead use direct object. בֵּרַךְ אתִי
      • With
        • בְּ with an instrument
        • עִם ,אֶת with a person
          • אֶת dropped out of use in later Biblical Hebrew, otherwise they are nearly synonymous.
          • [Check, perhaps, עִם is often used for familial relations between person. Often it overlaps with אֵת]
      • On, upon
        • Usually עַל not בְּ
        • Except use בְּ for:
          • ‘on that day’
          • on the top/head of the mountain – בָּהָר
      • מִן – use ּ מִ unless before definite article
      • [Gen 22.16, כִּ֗י with disjunctive accent functions differently.]
      • גַם־הִ֛וא She also.
      • הֲ plus אֵין used in nominal sentences, not לֹא for Do you not...
      • Short words come first; e.g., אֲנִי בְצָרָה not בְצָרָה אֲנִי
      • Waw consecutive
        • often doesn’t double before yod in Piel (and some other yods?). Similar to definite article L5?
        • Some sibilants don’t double, see נָשָׂא
      • The more frequently a word is used, the more frequently it is prone to irregularities!
      • Translation
        • Picking between Qal and Hitpael.
          • For קָבַץ Hithpael is intransitive, so use hitpael for gather together, not Qal.
      • Comparison
        • Smallest in Israel = H+Adj B+Noun, or Adj-Con+Noun
      • (in) where אֲשֶׁר שָׁם
      • (in) which אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ
      • Verbs of knowing have stative quality. Often translated in the present
      • When
        • בְּ / כְּ + Inf con. (hard, don’t use)
        • כִּי + Perfect
        • כַּאֲשֶׁר + Perfect
      • Watch out
        • Use feminine forms on verbs and adjectives with feminine nouns
        • Passive participles ‘you [are] blessed’ אַתְּ בְּרוּכָה
        • Blessed to the LORD לְ is dative not אֶל־
        • you will surely keep -> use 2m not 3m

      Sequence

      • Nouns of time often come before verb, Gen 1.1, בְּרֵשִׁית בָּרָ֣א
      • Waw consecutive used in narrating historic stories, consecutively we did x and then y and then z.
      • Use perfect for background information and if not first position in a clause.
        • had made = pluperfect = background information = event has happened before the time of narrative. So use perfect, not imperfect. Also, the position in clauses. First clauses waw-imperfect, second is then perfect, if it comes second in clause (e.g. after כִּי)
      • Clauses
        • Waw-consecutive only comes in first position in clause, use perfect after [כִּי (that), כַּאֲשֶׁר after, ...]
        • לֹא + [im?]perfect (negative clauses).
          • After a negative clause for ‘but’ use: כִּי / כִּי אִם [Maybe in end of Ross?]
        • אֲשֶׁר + perfect (relative clause).
        • כִּי + perfect (causual clause)
        • (temporal clause)
          • וַיְהִי +אֲשֶׁר or כִּי etc.
            • After he had visted ... etc.
      • Sequence
        • Verb - Subject - Indirect Object (dative) [one word?] - Direct Object (with direct object if name, has suffix, or definite object)
          • Gave - the king - to him - the book
        • If prep + suffix, or object marker + suffix
          • Verb - Object - Subject
          • Since it is considered a lighter word
        • Except if DBR ELHYM (etc.) they start as they are, the object marker/suffix does not come before the Subject
      • Jussive is in clause-initial position
      Learn Ross ch 40. 22.5 hitpalel bow down

      Vocab

      Learn irregular forms, such as אָבִי (L 11)

      Reading

      Practice Tests

      The basis on understanding is Weingreen’s vocab, but things can slip through the net.

      Mistakes

      • Don’t muddle up שָׁכַן with שָׁכַב
      • כִּי אִם but, except
      • Watch out from מִן־ comparison
      • Don’t muddle אוֹתָךְ obj. with sign
      View comments
      Greek Wed 2 Nov 16

      Table of contents

      Lesson 1

      The alphabet

      This lesson introduces the Greek alphabet, pronunciation, and punctuation.

      Greek Alphabet

      LetterCalledPronunciationTranslit.
      α Αἀλφαhata
      β Ββηταbb
      γ Γγαμμαget hard gg
      δ Δδελταdd
      ε Εἐψιλονmet short ee
      ζ Ζζηταzz
      η Ηἠταobey long e
      θ Θθηταthth
      ι Ιἰωταhiti
      κ Κκαππαkk
      λ Λλαμβδαll
      μ Μμυmm
      ν Ννυnn
      ξ Ξξιxx
      ο Οὀμικρονnot short oo
      π Ππιpp
      ρ Ρῥωrr or rh
      σ ς Σσιγμαss
      τ Τταυtt
      υ Υὐψιλονuu
      φΦφιfph or f
      χ Χ χιloch hardch or kh
      ψ Ψψιlipsps
      ω Ωὠμεγαtone long o

      Breathing

      A letter can be pronounced rough or smooth. If a word begins with a vowel (or ρ), breathing is added to show how it's pronounced. All other vowels have smooth breathing.

      • Rough breathing ( ‘ ) adds an 'h' sound/ aspiration (ἁγιος = hagios)
      • Smooth breathing ( ’ ) adds nothing to the pronunciation (ἀγγελος = angelos).

      Diphthongs

      When two verbs are pronounced together this is called a diphthong. When a diphthong starts a word, the breathing is placed over the final vowel (οὺδε).
      Pronunciation
      αιThailand or eye
      ειveil or say
      οιoil
      υιquit
      αυhow
      ουsoup
      ευ / ηυfeud or you
      Some vowel pairs are pronounced separately ἐαν (e-an), υἱος (hui-os).

      Iota subscript

      Iota subscript is a special form of diphthong. It occurs when an iota follows a long vowel (long α, η, ω) becoming (ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ), particularly at the end of a word. The iota is not pronounced.

      Punctuation

      Punctuation is not in the original, but added by later editors.
      ; = question mark (?)
      · (above the line) = semi-colon or colon (; or :)
      . = full stop (.)
      , = comma (,)

      γγ, ng

      γγ is pronounced ng

      Vocab

      και - and
      ’Αβρααμ - Abraham
      ἀμην - amen, truly
      Δαυιδ - David
      ῥαββι - Rabbi
      ’Ιακωβ - Jacob
      ’Ισραηλ - Israel
      ’Ιωσηφ - Joseph

      Lesson 2

      Basic sentences

      This lesson introduces basic verbs, nouns, nominative and accusative cases, verb agreement as well as the article.

      Verbs

      Present Indicative Active Conjugation

      Conjugation
      1s
      2s-εις
      3s-ει
      1pl-ομεν
      2pl-ετε
      3pl-ουσι(ν)

      The conjugation of a verb is a stem plus ending, such as λεγ-ω.

      -εω verb contractions

      -εω vowels contract.
      • ε+ε→ει
      • ε+ο→ου
      • ε+long vowel or diphthong→ removes ε

      Nouns

      Nominative and Accusative

      Nouns are made up of stems and endings. They decline (rather than conjugate as with verbs), but their declension is more varied than verb conjugations.

      Noun endings change depending on the case (nom, acc etc.) and number (s, pl).
      -ος, -οι; -ον, -ους etc.

      Sentences: subject-verb agreement

      A sentence must have a subject and verb and these must agree in number. We sometimes see this in English, 'he sees', 'they see'. Compare δουλος βλεπει and δουλοι βλεπουσιν.

      The Article

      Greek has no indefinite article (a), only the definite (the). Greek adds the article before names, some abstract nouns (non-concrete objects) and sometimes θεος - ignore these.

      In the masculine gender, the article declines as follows:
      SingularPlural
      Nominativeοἱ
      Accusativeτοντους

      Vocab

      Verbs

      ἀγω - I lead, bring
      ἀκουω - I hear, listen to [+acc of thing heard; +gen of person heard - LIII]
      βαλλω - I throw
      βλεπω - I see, watch
      διδασκω - I teach
      ἐχω - I have, hold
      λαμβανω - I take, receive
      λεγω - I say, speak, tell
      λυω - I untie

      -εω verbs

      ζητεω - I seek
      καλεω - I call
      λαλεω - I speak, say
      ποιεω - I do, make
      τηρεω - I keep
      φιλεω - I love, like

      Nouns

      ἀγγελος - messenger, angel
      ἀδελφος - brother
      ἀρτος - bread
      δουλος - slave
      θεος - god, God
      κοσμος - world
      κυριος - lord, master, sir
      λογος - word, message
      νομος - law
      οἰκος - household, house
      οὐρανος - heaven
      ὀχλος - crowd
      υἱος - son
      Χριστος - Christ, Messiah

      ἀνθρωπος - human being(s), person(s). Pl. A number of persons.
      λαος - people(s), i.e. nation. Use ἀνθρωπος (pl) for a number of persons.

      Lesson 3

      Cases and gender

      This lesson introduces cases and gender.

      Genitive and Dative

      Usually, genitive refers to possession of ('s); dative to or for an indirect object.

      Verbs usually, but don't always 'govern' a noun in the accusative. Especially for some verbs, it can also be genitive or dative. For instance, ἀκουω - I hear, listen to +acc of thing heard; +gen of person heard.

      Neuter plural nouns

      Note, neuter plural nouns normally take a single verb. The children keep (s τηρει) the law.

      The Definite Article and noun endings

      S-M-Nom and S-N-Nom+Acc differ in ending to the article.
        The M   F   N  
          Article Noun Article Noun Article Noun
      Sng Nom λογος ἀρχη το ἐργον
        Acc τον λογον την ἀρχην το ἐργον
        Gen του λογου της  ἀρχης του ἐργου
        Dat τῳ λογῳ τῃ ἀρχῃ τῳ ἐργῳ
      Pl Nom οἱ λογοι αἱ ἀρχαι τα ἐργα
        Acc τους λογους τας ἀρχας τα ἐργα
        Gen των λογων των ἀρχων των ἐργων
        Dat τοις  λογοις ταις  ἀρχαις τοις  ἐργοις

      Variant feminine forms

      There are three patterns for feminine nouns in the singular, they are the same in plural. Most follow ἀρχη, see above. The article is still the same.

      The rules for forms depend on the letter before the ending:

      • A vowel or ρ goes like ἡμερα
      • σ, ξ, ζ ('s' sounds) goes like δοξα
      • anything else, goes like ἀρχη
      (ζωη is an exception)

      (day)(glory)(beginning)
      Nomἡμεραδοξαἀρχη
      Accἡμερανδοξανἀρχην
      Genἡμεραςδοξηςἀρχης
      Datἡμερᾳδοξῃἀρχῃ

      The vocative

      Fifth case, rare and simple. Its case is similar to the nominative, except Mas. sing. λογε not λογος. κυριε for lord.

      Special words

      Jesus

      Nom. ’Ιησους
      Acc. ’Ιησουν
      Gen. ’Ιησου
      Dat. ’Ιησου
      Voc. ’Ιησου

      He/she/it

      αὐ- + Def Art means he/she/it. Except αὐτος for he (this is rarely used). Takes definite article before noun in genitive.

      Vocab

      Update

      ἀκουω - I hear, listen to + acc. of thing heard; + gen. of person heard

      17 feminine nouns

      ἀγαπη - love
      ἀδελφη - sister
      ἀρχη - beginning
      γη - earth, soil, land
      ζωη - life
      φωνη - sound, voice
      ψυξη - soul, self

      ἁμαρτια - sin
      βασιλεια - reign, kingship, kingdom
      ἐκκλησια - assembly (later church)
      ἡμερα - day
      καρδια - heart
      Μαρια (also Heb. form Μαριαμ) - Mary
      οἰκια - house, household
      ὡρα - hour, occasion

      δοξα - splendour, glory
      θαλασσα - sea, lake

      Neuter nouns

      βιβλιον - book, scroll
      δαιμονιον - demon
      ἐργον - work, deed
      εὐαγγελιον - good news, gospel
      ἱερον - temple
      πλοιον - boat
      προσωπον - face
      σαββατον - Sabbath
      σημειον - sign, miracle
      τεκνον - child

      Special

      αὐτος αὐτη αὐτο - he, she, it, they (note S M Nom is -ος).

      ’Ιησους - Jesus
      Παυλος - Paul
      Πετρος - Peter

      πιστευω + dat - I believe (in), trust, have faith in

      Lesson 4

      Prepositions

      This lesson introduces prepositions. Prepositions determine the case of the noun they precede. The meaning of some prepositions varies with case.

      Elision

      When prepositions that end in a vowel occur before a vowel, the following rules apply:

      • ἀπο, δια, ἐπι, κατα, μετα, παρα, ὑπο drop their final vowel
      • ἐξω, περι and προ remain unchanged
      • ἐκ becomes ἐξ

      If a vowel has a rough breathing, a final τ becomes θ and a final π becomes φ. μετα → μεθ’ and ἀπο → ἀφ’.

      Instruments and Agents

      • An instrument is an inanimate object by means of which the action of the verb happens. Usually seen in the dative without preposition (sometimes ἐν + dat). λογῳ - with a word.
      • An agent is a living being by means of which the action of the verb happens. Normally ὐπο + gen.
      • 'With' meaning along with rather than 'by means of' is μετα + gen. (or occasionally συν + dat).

      Compound Verbs

      Elisions used in forming, such as ἀπαγω - I lead away

      Questions

      Identified by use of a question word or tone of voice (see punctuation).

      Negatives

      • οὐ - before a consonant
      • οὐκ - before a vowel with smooth breathing
      • οὐχ - before a vowel with hard breathing

      Vocab

      Prepositions

      ἀπο + gen - (away) from
      δια + acc - because of; + gen - through
      εἰς + acc - into
      ἐκ + gen - (out of) from
      ἐν + dat - in
      ἐνωπιον + gen - in front of, in the presence of
      ἐξω + gen - outside
      ἐπι + acc - onto; + gen - on, in the time of; + dat - on, in, on the basis of
      ἑως + gen - until
      κατα + acc - according to; + gen - against
      μετα + acc - after; + gen - with
      παρα + acc - alongside; + gen - from beside; + dat - beside
      περι + acc - around, approximately; + gen - concerning, about
      προ + gen - before
      προς + acc - to, towards
      συν + dat - together with
      ὑπερ + acc - above; + gen - on behalf of
      ὑπο + acc - under; + gen - by, at the hands of

      Compound verbs

      ἀναβλεπω - I look up, receive sight
      ἀπολυω - I set free, divorce, dismiss
      ἐκβαλλω - I drive out, cast out, throw out
      ἐπικαλεω - I call upon, name
      κατοικεω - I dwell, inhabit, live
      παρακαλεω - I exhort, request, comfort, encourage
      παραλαμβανω - I take, receive
      περιπατεω - I walk about, live
      προσκυνεω + dat - I worship
      συναγω - I gather, bring together
      ὑπαγω - I depart

      Questions words

      πως - how?
      που - where?
      οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ - not

      Lesson 5

      Adjectives

      This lesson introduces adjectives, the verb to be and word order in sentences.

      Formation of adjectives

      Adjectives must agree with their noun. Their endings follow normal noun endings. As with feminine nouns, F-S adjectives whose stem ends in vowel or ρ have endings in α not η (recall ἡμερα). No adjectives are like δοξα.

      Uses of adjectives

      Attributive use of adjectives

      The most common use of adjectives is where the adjective defines more precisely an attribute of a noun or pronoun. Such as 'The beautiful land.' The adjective qualifies or describes the noun.
      • βλεπουσιν την καλην γην (as in English)
      • βλεπουσιν την γην την καλην

      If an adjective can be removed it's attributive, not predicative.

      Note, adjectives for indefinite nouns contain no article.

      Predicative use of adjectives

      The law is holy. An adjective can complete a sentence (as a complement not object), this is the predicative use. (Clause, containing verb stating something about subject.)
      • ὁ νομος ἐστιν ἁγιος
      • ἁγιος [ἐστιν] ὁ νομος

      Predicative adjectives are never immediately preceded by the article.

      The verb 'to be' is sometimes dropped. Look for missing verbs and predicative case.

      Substantive use of adjectives (as nouns)

      Place an article before the adjective for the substantive use ('the ... man/woman/thing'). Case dictates if it refers to a man, woman or thing.

      • ὀ ἀγαθος the good man; τα ἀγια the holy things; οἱ νεκροι the dead (ones)

      Irregular adjectives: πολυς and μεγας

      Note, for these, Mas+Neut-Nom+Acc stems are truncated.

      Word order in sentences

      Words order matters less in Greek. However, the word that comes first carries more stress. In long sentences, the final word also carries much stress.

      Sandwich structure places the genitive or dative between the definite article and noun.

      • βλεπω το του κυριου ἱερον.

      (*Note the article may be repeated before genitive or preposition)

      To Be

      εἰμι - I am
      εἶ - you (s) are
      ἐστι(ν) - he/she/it is
      ἐσμεν - we are
      ἐστε - you (pl) are
      ἐισι(ν) - they are
      Note, the circumflex distinguishes εἶ from εἰ – if.

      Preparatory use

      If ἐστι(ν) or εἰσι(ν) are placed first in a sentence, they become 'there is' or 'there are'.

      Nouns as complements

      Complements (see predicative use of adjectives) can be nouns. These complements still match the case of the noun they describe.
      • ὁ υἱος ἐστιν ὀ κυριος
      ἐστιν doesn't function as equals. E.g., The son is the lord differs from the lord is the son. To distinguish subject from object, the subject comes first, or the article is dropped from the complement (κυριος ἐστιν ὁ υἱος). If the complement precedes the subject it cannot have the definite article.

      Vocab

      Adjectives

      ἀγαθος - good
      ἀγαπητος - beloved
      ἁγιος - holy
      δικαιος - upright, just
      ἑκαστος - each
      ἑτερος - another, different
      ἰδιος - one's own
      Ἰουδαιος - Jewish, a Jew
      καινος - new
      κακος - bad
      καλος - beautiful, good
      μακαριος - blessed, happy
      μονος - only, alone
      νεκρος - dead
      ὁσος - as/how great, as/how much
      πιστος - faithful, believing
      πονηρος - evil, wicked
      τυφλος - blind

      μεγας μεγαλη μεγα - large, great
      πολυς πολλη πολυ - much, many

      Feminine nouns

      Γαλιλαια - Galilee
      εἰρηνη - peace
      κεφαλη - head
      συναγωγη - synagogue

      Conjunctions

      ἀλλα - but
      εἰ - if (no circumflex)
      ἠ - or
      ὡς - as, like

      Plus

      καιρος - time, season
      εἰμι - I am

      Ἱεροσολυμα N Pl or Ἰερουσαλημ F S - Jerusalem
      αἰωνιος - eternal (always masculine form)

      Lesson 6

      Tenses

      This lesson introduces the four main tenses that accompany verbs. (It focuses in the indicative mood, where tense describes time and aspect.)

      Four tenses defined

      Prefixes and suffixes

      TenseStemEnding
      Presentλυω
      Futureλυσω
      Imperfectλυον
      Aoristλυσα

      Meaning of tenses

      TenseTimeAspectEnglish
      PresentPresentProcess or UndefinedI am untying or I untie
      FutureFutureUndefinedI will untie
      ImperfectPastProcessI was untying/used to/began to
      AoristPastUndefinedI untied
      PerfectPast & PresentCompletedI have untied

      Aspect

      • Process: ongoing (continuous or repeated).
      • Undefined: Undefined, nothing about manner. Or, one-time only.
        • [Aorist can be used as perfect, Heb 1.2]

      Imperfect uses

      I was (continuous), used to (repeated), began to (just beginning).

      Verb endings

      PresentFutureImperfectAorist
      1sλυ-ωλυσ-ωἐλυ-ονἐλυσ-α
      2sλυ-ειςλυσ-ειςἐλυ-εςἐλυσ-ας
      3sλυ-ειλυσ-ειἐλυ-ε(ν)ἐλυσ-ε(ν)
      1plλυ-ομενλυσ-ομενἐλυ-ομενἐλυσ-αμεν
      2plλυ-ετελυσ-ετεἐλυ-ετεἐλυσ-ατε
      3plλυ-ουσι(ν)λυσ-ουσι(ν)ἐλυ-ονἐλυσ-αν

      Contractions

      ἐ prefix lengthening

      • ἐ+α→η
      • ἐ+ε→η
      • ἐ+ο→ω
      Diphthongs follow this logic
      • ἐ+αι→ῃ, but ἐ+αυ→ηυ
      • ἐ+ει→ῃ, but ἐ+ευ→ηυ (often left ευ)
      • ἐ+οι→ῳ
      Very few verbs begin with η or ω in their basic form. Thus words beginning this way are likely to be in the Imperfect or Aorist. βλεψω - I will see.

      Compound verbs

      With imperfect and aorist verbs, the augment (ἐ) is added between the preposition and stem. Watch out for elisions.
      Examples, ἀπελυον, ἐξεβαλλον, ὑπηγον, συνηγον.

      σ suffix combinations

      • π, β, φ + σ → ψ
      • τ, δ, θ, ζ + σ → σ
      • κ, γ, χ, σσ + σ → ξ
      * κραζω behaves like κρασσω
      * ἐχω is unusual εἰχον (Imperfect) ξω (Future)

      Tenses in -εω verbs

      The ε in Future and Aorist lengthens to η. Contractions still occur in Imperfect
      φιλω, φιλησω φιλουν, φιλησα...

      Vocab

      Verbs

      ἀνοιγω - I open
      βαπτιζω - I baptise, dip
      γραφω - I write
      διωκω - I persecute, pursue
      δοξαζω - I praise, glorify
      κηρυσσω - I proclaim, preach
      κραζω - I cry out
      πεμπω - I send
      πειθω - I conceive, persuade
      σωζω - I save, rescue, heal (also σῳζω)

      Compound verbs

      ἀποκαλυπτω - I reveal, uncover
      προσεχω + dat - I take heed of, pay attention to
      ὑπαρχω - I exist, I am

      -εω verbs

      αἰτεω + acc + acc - I ask (for) *double accusative
      εὐλογεω - I speak well of, bless, praise
      εὐχαριστεω - I give thanks
      οἰκοδομεω - I build (up)

      Words of time

      ἀρτι - now, just now
      ἐτι - still, yet
      ἠδη - already
      νυν - now
      ὁτε - when
      οὐκετι - no longer
      οὐπω - not yet
      παλιν - back, again
      παντοτε - always
      ποτε - once (at some time)
      σημερον - today
      τοτε - then
      δυο - two

      Nouns

      Τιμοθεος - Timothy
      τοπος - place

      Lesson 7

      Moods

      This lesson introduces moods. Moods indicate the manner in which the action is regarded: statement, command, hypothetical etc.

      Five moods

      Greek has five moods, we've already seen the indicative and cover the subjunctive later. The indicative behaves differently to the 'other moods', e.g. μη not οὐ - not. These 'other moods' have no future or imperfect tense. Tense refers only to aspect (not time) in these other moods, so they have no augment (ἐ).

      Infinite verbs, don't have subject. Instead infinitive and participle act as verbal nouns/adjectives respectively.

      MoodExpressesExample
      Indicative Statements and questionsI am listening
      ImperativeCommandsListen!
      InfinitiveGeneral idea of a verbTo listen
      ParticipleVerbal adjectiveListening
      SubjunctiveUncertaintyI may listen

      Imperative

      Formation of imperative mood:
      PresentAorist
      2s-σον
      2pl-ετε-σατε
      Note, Pl Pre Imp looks like Pl Pre Indicative. Remember, -εω verbs contract: -ει, -ειτε; -ησον,-ησατε

      Aorist Imperative is the normal/default imperative (undefined). Present Imperative (process) suggests a repeated or continual command (keep on doing it).

      Infinitive

      PresentAorist
      Infinitive-ειν-σαι
      Aorist is default (undefined aspect). Present shows continous or repeated process.
      Infinitive tends to convey purpose and follow these verbs: θελω, δει, μελλω, ἐξεστι, it is permitted to ...
      Infinitives are verbal nouns, as such they may take an object.

      Participles

      Participles work alongside the main verb, adding a further layer of meaning. They are very common in Greek. They are verbal adjectives (verbs that behave as adjectives). We first learn the masculine nominative.

      Mas.PresentAorist
      S-ων-σας
      Pl-οντες-σαντες

      Participles are dependent upon a main verb (indicative or imperative), as infinite verbs. Aorist participle is default, ‘having untied’. Indicates sequence, the participle occurs before the main verb.

      Present participle ‘untying’. The present participle is a process occurring simultaneously with the main verb.

      Good English

      Avoid wooden translations practising these suggestions.
      • Present: while, as (they were)
      • Aorist: after, when (they had)

      Participle with objects

      As a verb, participles can take objects in the accusative. With their own object, participles introduce a subordinate clause into the sentence, telling us something extra involving the object.

      Participles with nouns

      Add the definite article before the participle. When translating often add who.
      οἱ ἀκουσαντες = the having heard ones = those who heard

      Vocab

      Feminine nouns

      δικαιοσυνη - righteousness
      ἐντολη - commandment
      ἐξουσια - authority
      παραβολη - parable
      παρρησια - outspokenness, boldness
      χαρα - joy

      Masculine nouns

      ἀποστολος - apostle
      θανατος - death
      ὀφθαλμος - eye
      Φαρισαιος - Pharisee

      Neuter nouns

      θηριον - animal, beast
      ἱματιον - garment
      μνημειον - tomb, monument
      προβατον - sheep

      Negatives used in other moods

      μη - not
      μηδε - and not, but not
      μηκετι - no longer
      μητε - and not, nor

      Verbs

      ἀκολουθεω + dat - I follow
      ἀναγω - I lead up, restore
      δεω - I bind, tie up
      δοκεω - I think, seem
      ἐλεεω - I have mercy on, pity
      θελω (θελησω, ἠθελον, ἠθελησα) - I wish, want
      θεωρεω - I look at
      καταργεω - I make ineffective, abolish
      μαρτυρεω - I bear witness, testify
      μελλω - I intend, am about (to)
      μετανοεω - I repent, change my mind

      3rd singular only verbs

      δει - it is necessary (or use must) (3s)
      ἐξεστι - it is permitted (3s)

      Preposition

      ὀπισω + gen - behind

      Lesson 8

      Other patterns of nouns and verbs

      This lesson introduces deponent verbs (Middle Voice) with their conjugations across tenses and moods. Also different tenses and moods of the verb to be. And different gender endings for nouns (different declensions).

      Deponent verbs

      Said to be in the Middle Voice. These verbs conjugate differently to verbs in the Active Voice (λυω).

      Deponent endings

      PresentFutureImperfectAorist
      1s-ομαι-ομαι-ομην-αμην
      2s-ῃ-ῃ-ου
      3s-εται-εται-ετο-ατο
      1pl-ομεθα-ομεθα-ομεθα-αμεθα
      2pl-εσθε-εσθε-εσθε-ασθε
      3pl-ονται-ονται-οντο-αντο

      Note, deponent ending still contain some -εω contractions. Remember Fut and Aor sigma and Imp and Aor prefix.

      Deponent verbs in other moods

      PresentAorist
      Imp 2s-ου-σαι
      Imp 2pl-εσθε-σασθε
      Inf-εσθαι-σασθαι
      M.N. Part S-ομενος-σαμενος
      Part Pl-ομενοι-σαμενοι

      Imperfect, future and other moods of ειμι

      PresentFutureImperfect
      1sεἰμιἐσομαιἠμην
      2sεἰἐσῃἠς (or ἠσθα)
      3sἐστι(ν)ἐσταιἠν
      1plἐσμενἐσομεθαἠμεν (or ἠμεθα)
      2plἐστεἐσεσθεἠτε
      3plεἰσι(ν)ἐσονταιἠσαν
      Present infinitive: εἰναι
      Present participles mns. ὠν; mnp. ὀντες – 'being'

      Nouns of confusing gender

      Some nouns' gender differ from appearance. The definite article still agrees with gender, but the endings don't appear so.

      1st declension masculine nouns

      -ης-ας
      S Nom-ης-ας
      Acc-ην-αν
      Gen-ου
      Dat-ῃ-ᾳ
      Pl Nom-αι-αι
      Acc-ας-ας
      Gen-ων-ων
      Dat-αις-αις
      S Voc

      2nd declension feminine nouns

      Decline as 2nd declension masculine nouns such as λογος.

      Vocab

      Deponent verbs

      ἐρχομαι - I come, go
      ἀπερχομαι - I depart, go away
      διερχομαι - I cross over
      εἰσερχομαι - I go into, enter
      ἐξερχομαι - I go out, go away
      παρερχομαι - I go by, pass by
      προσερχομαι - I come to, go to, approach
      συνερχομαι - I come together

      ἁπτομαι + gen - I touch
      ἀρνεομαι - I refuse, deny
      ἀρχομαι - I begin
      ἀσπαζομαι - I greet
      δεχομαι - I receive
      ἐργαζομαι - I work
      εὐαγγελιζομαι - I proclaim good news (compound εὐ-)
      λογιζομαι - I calculate, consider
      προσευχομαι - I pray
      προσκαλεομαι - I summon
      ῥυομαι - I rescue

      Masculine nouns

      Ἡρῳδης - Herod
      Ἰωαννης Ἰωανης - John
      μαθητης - disciple
      προφητης - prophet
      στρατιωτης - soldier
      ὑπηρετης - servant

      Βαρναβας - Barnabas
      Ἰουδας - Judah, Judas
      Σατανας - Satan

      Ἡλιας - Elijah (gen. -ου)

      Three feminine nouns

      Αἰγυπτος - Egypt
      ἐρημος - wilderness, desolate land
      ὁδος - way, road

      Lesson 9

      Pronouns and conjunctions

      Demonstrative pronouns (this and that)

      Formation

      ἐκεινος (that, pl. those) declines like αὐτος.

      οὑτος (this, pl. these) is less regular.

      MFN
      SNomοὑτοςαὑτητουτο

      Accτουτονταυτηντουτο

      Genτουτουταυτηςτουτου

      Datτουτῳταυτῃτουτῳ
      PlNomοὑτοιαὑταιταυτα

      Accτουτουςταυταςταυτα

      Genτουτωντουτωντουτων

      Datτουτοιςταυταιςτουτοις
      Ending are the same as αὐτος. Stem similar to article in replacing τ with rough breathing in M-F Nom. First vowel matches ending.

      Use as pronouns

      Might need to supply person, man, woman or thing. ἀρξεται ταυτα - He will begin these things.

      Use as adjectives

      Always include the article, but placed as predicative adjectives (i.e, never after article). οὑτος ὁ ἀδελφος - this brother.

      Note, ὁλος - whole, entire - declines as adj/noun, but is used like pronoun, before article.

      Third person pronouns

      αὐτος - ‘same’ or emphatic adjective

      This pronoun can be used as an adjective. Either as a normal adjective (between article and noun) meaning ‘same’. ὁ αὐτος κυριος - the same Lord.

      Or emphatic adjective (himself, herself, itself, themselves) for emphasis (in predicative position, before article). αὐτος ὁ κυριος - The Lord himself.

      ἐαυτος - reflexive pronoun

      3rd person reflexive pronoun (himself, herself...). Differs to emphatic pronoun (unlike English which uses same word). Decline like αὐτος, but never in Nom. ὁ κυριος σωζει ἐαυτον - The Lord saves himself. Sentences that can delete ‘himself’ are emphatic.

      ἀλλος and ἀλληλος

      ἀλλος (adj. other) and ἀλληλος (pron. one another) decline like αὐτος. (Accent ἄλλα distinguishes Net.-Nom. from αλλα).

      First and second person pronouns and adjectives

      1st and 2nd person pronouns

      Used only for emphasis. Genitive pronouns require the article.

      1st person pronoun

      SingularPlural
      NomἐγωIἡμειςwe
      Accἐμε or μεmeἡμαςus
      Genἐμου or μουof me, mineἡμωνof us, our
      Datἐμοι or μοιto/for meἡμινto/for us
      Ὁ κυριος μου και ὁ θεος μου - My Lord and my God!

      2nd person pronoun

      SingularPlural
      Nomσυyouὑμεις
      Accσεyouὑμας
      Genσουof you, yourὑμων
      Datσοιto/for youὑμιν

      Reflexive pronouns

      Myselfἐμαυτος (declines like αὐτος)
      Yourself (s)σεαυτος (declines like αὐτος)
      Ourselvesἑαυτος (pl)
      Yourselvesἑαυτος (pl)

      Possessive adjectives

      Less common than genitive person pronouns.
      ἐμος - my. σος - your (s). Decline like adj/nouns.

      Genetive pronouns (as with αὐτος) require the article. οἱ λογοι μου

      Conjunctions

      Conjunctions join together two sentences.

      Post-positive (timid) conjunctions

      ἀρα, γαρ, δε, μεν, οὐν, τε (plus ποτε) cannot come first in sentence.

      μεν ... δε

      one the one hand... on the other hand.
      If used with the article οἱ μεν ... οἱ δε means “some... but others”

      δε

      Is a weak but (ἀλλα is stronger). Often untranslated. Used with article to show subject change - 'He'.

      και

      Sometimes untranslated at start of sentence. If only for emphasis (and not necessary) translate as ‘also’ or ‘even’. τε ... και - both ... and.
      ἠρξατο ὁ ’Ιησους ποιειν τε και διδασκειν - Jesus began both to do and to teach.

      Vocab

      Pronouns or personal adjectives

      ἀλληλος - each other, one another
      ἀλλος - other
      ἑαυτος - himself, herself, itself (reflexive) (declines as αὐτος)
      ἐγω, ἡμεις - I, we
      ἐκεινος - that (pl. those)
      ἐμαυτος - myself
      ἐμος - my, mine
      κἀγω - and I (και + ἐγω) - called crasis
      ὁλος - whole, entire (declines as adj, used like pronoun)
      οὑτος, αὑτη, τουτο - this (pl. these)
      ποιος - of what kind?
      ποσος - how great, how much?
      σεαυτος - yourself
      σος - your, yours (s)
      συ, ὑμεις - you (s), you (pl)
      τοιουτος - of such a kind, such

      Conjunctions

      ἀρα - so
      γαρ - because, for
      γε - indeed
      δε - but
      διο - therefore
      διοτι - because
      εἰτε - if (εἱτε ... εἱτε - if ... if; whether ... or)
      ἐπει - since
      μεν - on the one hand
      μηποτε - never
      οὐν - therefore, consequently
      τε - and (τε ... και - both ... and)

      Neuter nouns

      ἀρνιον - lamb, sheep
      δενδρον - tree
      μυστηριον - mystery, secret
      ποτηριον - cup

      Lesson 10

      Complex sentences

      Complex sentences have two main verbs. Gender case and number determined by sentences.

      Relative pronoun

      The relative pronoun is equivalent to who (whom, whose, what, which) that joins together two sentences or clauses. Appears in second sentence, but points back to first. It stands in for antecedent (e.g. the Lord sent the messenger, who...), used in first sentence.

      Declines similar to the article

      MFN
      SingNomὁς
      Accὁνἡν
      Genοὑἡςοὑ
      Datᾡᾑᾡ
      PlNomοἳαἳ
      Accοὑςἁς
      Genὡνὡνὡν
      Datοἱςαἱςοἱς
      Who (nom), whom (acc), whose (gen), whom (dat) for people. Which or what for things.
      The rough breathing helps identify the relative pronoun.

      Determining which relative

      As with English, number and gender agree with antecedent, case determined by context in relative's sentence.

      Position or omission of relative

      1. Relative clause may come in middle of complex sentence, not end.
      2. Antecedent is often omitted if it is αὐτος, οὑτος or ἐκεινος (John 5.21)
      3. Relative clause often comes first

      Slanted questions

      A question expecting the answer. μη - no, οὐ - yes. (Sometimes μητι, οὐτι, οὐχι.) Particle when used as slanted questions often come first in sentence, unlike when used as simple negetives.
      Surely, you agree, don’t you?

      Direct and indirect statements

      Direct Statements

      Marked by ὁτι or λεγω (or both or none!) and is equivalent to opening quote.

      Indirect statements

      Marked by ὁτι (second of three uses) meaning that. Here, Greek uses the tense of the original words ἠκουσες ὁτι Ἰησους ἐρξεται - ‘she heard that Jesus was [lit. is ] coming’

      Time expressions

      • How long/for - accusative
      • During/by - genitive
      • At which/on - dative

      Vocab

      ἀληθεια - truth
      ἀληθινος - true, genuine, real
      ἐγγυς - near
      ἐκει - there (in that place)
      ἐκειθεν - from there
      εὐθυς - immediately
      καθως - just as
      καλως - appropriately, well
      ναι - yes, of course
      ὁμοιος - similar, like
      ὁμοιως - likewise
      ὁπου - where
      ὁς, ἥ, ὅ - who, which, what
      ὁτι - that, because, or ‘ (marking the beginning of speech)
      οὑ - where
      οὐδε - and not
      οὐτε - neither - οὐτε... οὐτε - neither ... nor
      οὑτως - in this manner, thus
      οὐχι - not, no
      πλην - however, yet
      ποθεν - from where? (or how?)
      ὡδε - here

      Prepositions

      ἐμπροσθεν + gen - in front of
      ἑνεκα + gen - for the sake of
      περαν + gen - on the other side of
      χωρις + gen - separate, apart from

      Πιλατος - Pilate

      Verbs

      ἐγγιζω + dat - I approach, come near
      ἡγεομαι - I lead
      θαυμαζω - I am amazed
      θεραπευω - I heal
      καθευδω - I sleep

      Lesson 11

      Special Verbs

      Second Aorists

      These verbs have different stems in the aorist tense. This is similar to the difference between walk→walked (1st aorist) and sing→sung (2nd aorist).

      Formation

      Different stems leads to different endings and no σ. 2nd Aorist verbs have imperfect endings in the indicative and present in other moods.

      The indicative form contains the augment (ἐ), which must be carefully removed in other moods.

      Unusual endings

      γινωσκω and (κατα-)βαινω have unusual endings.

      • Ind. ἐγνων, ἐγνως, ἐγνω, ἐγνωμεν, ἐγνωτε, ἐγνωσαν Imp. γνω, γνωτε, Inf. γνωναι, Part. γνους, γνοντες
      • Ind. κατεβην, κατεβης, κατεβη, κατεβημεν, κατεβητε, κατεβησαν, Imp. καταβηθι, καταβητε, Inf. καταβηναι, Part. καταβας, καταβαντες

      Some verbs (ἠλθον, εἰπον, εἰδον, ἠνεγκον) occasionally use 1st Aorist endings (εἰπαν).

      Liquid Verbs

      Verbs whose stem ends in λ, μ, ν or ρ are liquid. They cannot be followed by σ, so their stem changes in the future and aorist tenses. Stem changes are minimal, shifting between double to single final consonant and long to short final vowel.

      Future tense uses εω endings. Circumflex distinguishes future from present liquid verbs, μενεῖς. Common changes between present, future and aorist:

      • Fut short final vowel. σπειρω σπερεω ἐσπειρα; likewise ἐγειρω; ἀποκτεινω
        • Similar is αἰρω ἀρεω ἠρα
      • Double to single consonant. And aorist lengthens final vowel. ἀποστελλω ἀποστελεω ἀπεστειλα; likewise ἀγγελλω
      • Aorist lengthens final vowel. μενω μενεω ἐμεινα; likewise κρινω[?]
      • Some use 2nd aorist and rules. ἀποθνῃσκω ἀποθανεομαι ἀπεθανον; likewise βαλλω

      Vocab

      ἁμαρτανω (ἡμαρτον) - I do wrong, sin
      ἀποθνῃσκω (ἀπεθανον) - I die
      γινομαι (ἐγενομην) - I become, happen
      παραγινομαι - I arrive, stand by
      ἐσθιω (ἐφαγον) - I eat
      εὑρισκω (εὑρον) - I find
      καταλειπω (κατελιπον) - I leave (behind)
      μανθανω (ἐμαθον) - I learn
      ὁραω (εἰδον) - I see
      πασχω (ἐπαθον) - I suffer
      πινω (ἐπιον) - I drink
      πιπτω (ἐπεσον) - I fall (down)
      φερω (ἠνεγκον) - I bear, carry
      προσφερω - I bring to, offer
      φευγω (ἐφυγον) - I flee

      Liquid verbs

      ἀπαγγελλω - I report, announce
      παραγγελλω + dat - I order
      αἰρω - I take (away), lift up
      ἀποκτεινω - I kill
      ἀποστελλω - I send (out)
      ἐγειρω - I raise up, wake
      κρινω - I judge, decide
      μενω - I remain
      ὀφειλω - I owe
      σπειρω - I sow
      χαιρω - I rejoice

      Verbs with 2nd Aorists with unusual endings

      ἀναβαινω (-ἐβην) - I go up
      καταβαινω - I go down
      γινωσκω (ἐγνων) - I know
      ἀναγινωσκω - I read
      ἐπιγινωσκω - I recognise

      ἰδου - Look! Behold!

      Previous verbs with 2nd aorist

      ἐβαλον - I threw
      ἐλαβον - I took
      ἠγαγον - I led
      ἐσχον - I had
      ἠλθον - I came
      εἰπον - I said

      Lesson 12

      The third declension – part one

      The third declension covers all nouns (adjectives and pronouns) that don't follow forms in the first or second family. Masculine and feminine forms are the same. Their nominative singular is irregular, so must be learnt along with the stem (given in genitive).

      Masculine and feminine nouns with consonant stems

      SingPlu
      NomVarious-ες
      Acc-ας
      Gen-ος-ων
      Dat-σι(ν)

      Dative plural

      The dative plural contracts when following a consonant, given the sigma. Follow contractions from Lesson 6. Also, there are slight changes in vowel sounds.

      • εντ + σιν → εισιν
      • οντ + σιν → ουσιν
      • [αντ + σιν → ασιν]
      • Some other contractions include ἀνδρασιν and χερσιν.

      The family group

      The following nouns decline in the same irregular pattern.
      • πατηρ, πατρος, ὁ
      • μητηρ, μητρος, ἡ
      • θυγατηρ, θυγατρος, ἡ
      SingularPlural
      Nomπατηρπατερες
      Accπατεραπατερας
      Genπατροςπατερων
      Datπατριπατρασιν
      πατηρ alone has an irregular vocative πατερ.

      Neuter nouns with consonant stems

      SingPlu
      NomVarious
      AccAbove-α
      Gen-ος-ων
      Dat-σι(ν)
      Many 3rd declension neuter nouns have stem ending in -ματ.

      Adjectives with consonant stems

      3rd dcl. Adjectives are same in m/f, but different in neuter. So neuter nom also needed. The most common 3rd decl. adjective is the comparative πλειων (m/fsn), πλειον (nsn), πλειονος (sg). (See also μειζων.)
      If showing comparison (more than), these have the second noun in the genitive, or an additional ἠ
      SingularPlural
      M/FNeutM/FNeut
      Nomπλειωνπλειονπλειονεςπλειονα
      Accπλειοναπλειονπλειοναςπλειονα
      Genπλειονοςπλειονοςπλειονωνπλειονων
      Datπλειονιπλειονιπλειοσινπλειοσιν

      τις and τίς

      These two pronouns decline like πλειων. They are distinguished by accent. τίς often comes first in sentence; τις, never. τίς has question mark follow and accent only on first syllable, not second or none.
      • τις is the indefinite pronoun – someone, anyone
      • τίς is the interrogative pronoun – who? what?
      m/f τίς, n τί, gen τίνος

      Uses

      • Pronouns.
      • Adjectives. Must agree with noun. What ... Some ...
      • Why? τί only.

      Vocab

      3rd declension nouns

      ἀνηρ, ἀνδρος, ὁ - man (male), husband
      ἀστηρ, ἀστερος, ὁ - star
      σωτηρ, σωτηρος, ὁ - saviour
      αἰων, αἰωνος, ὁ - age (long time) (εἰς τον αἰωνα - into the age, forever)
      ἀρχων, ἀρχοντος, ὁ - ruler, leader
      Σιμων, Σιμωνος, ὁ - Simon
      γυνη, γυναικος, ἡ - woman, wife
      ἐλπις, ἐλπιδος, ἡ - hope
      νυξ, νυκτος, ἡ - night
      πους, ποδος, ὁ - foot
      σαρξ, σαρκος, ἡ - flesh
      χαρις, χαριτος, ἡ - grace
      χειρ, χειρος, ἡ - hand
      θυγατηρ, θυγατρος, ἡ - daughter
      μητηρ, μητρος, ἡ - mother
      πατηρ, πατρος, ὁ - father, ancestor
      πυρ, πυρος, το - fire
      ὑδωρ, ὑδατος, το - water
      φως, φωτος, το - light
      αἱμα, αἱματος, το - blood
      θελημα, θεληματος, το - will
      ὀνομα, ὀνοματος, το - name
      πνευμα, πνευματος, το - spirit, wind
      ῥημα, ῥηματος, το - word, saying
      στομα, στοματος, το - mouth
      σωμα, σωματος, το - body

      Two adjectives

      μειζων - larger, greater
      πλειων - more

      τις τι - someone, something
      τίς τί - who? which? what? (τί can mean why?)
      ὁστις - who
      ὡσπερ - just as

      Lesson 13

      The third declension – part two

      Nouns with vowel stems

      Feminine (frequently abstract) nouns with stem -ι, Nom -ις, Gen -εως.

      Masculine (frequently occupational) nouns with stem -ευ, Nom -ευς, Gen -εως

      -ις FSP-ευ MSP
      Nom-ις-εις-ευς-εις
      Acc-ιν-εις-εα-εις
      Gen-εως-εων-εως-εων
      Dat-ει-εσιν-ει-ευσιν

      -υ stem (only common in ἰχθυς) similar to 3 dec consonant stems, except AS -υν. These endings are similar to other 3rd decl. endings.

      Neuter nouns and adjectives ending in -ε, genitive -ους

      These endings contract (L6), otherwise as other neuter nouns (L12).

      Note, in adjectives, m/f acc pl is -εις (same as nom pl).

      πας (all/every)

      πας is a 3-1-3 hybrid declension. Masculine and Neuter follow the 3rd declension; Feminine, the first. To decline these words requires the nominative in each gender and the M/N genitive (πας, πασα, παν, gen παντος).

      In singular, normally translated ‘every’ or ‘whole’. Uses as adjective:

      1. Alone, refers to person/man, woman, thing. παντα all things.
      2. With noun, no article: every. παν δενδρον - every tree.
      3. With noun and article. Usually stands predicatively παντες οἱ ἀρχιερεις - all the chief priests
      4. With article and participle. πας ὁ πιστευων - everyone who believes

      εἱς (one)

      Only singular, declines as πας (εἱς μια ἑν, gen ἑνος). Note rough breathings distinguish from ἐν (in) ἐις (into).

      οὐδεις, μηδεις (no one, nothing)

      Decline as εἱς with prefix. Used in indicative and other moods respectively.

      Note double negative is still negative. οὐ βλεπω οὐδεν - I do not see anything.

      Vocab

      3rd decl neuter nouns with genitive in -ους

      ἐθνος, ἐθνους, το - nation (pl Gentiles)
      ἐλεος, ἐλεους, το - mercy
      ἐτος, ἐτους, το - year
      μελος, μελους, το - member, part, limb
      μερος, μερους, το - part, share
      ὀρος, ὀρους, το - mountain, hill
      πληθος, πληθους, το - multitude, large amount
      σκευος, σκευους , το - object (pl property)
      σκοτος, σκοτους, το - darkness
      τελος,τελους, το - end, goal

      3rd decl masculine nouns with genitive in -εως

      ἀρχιερευς, ἀρχιερεως, ὁ - high priest, chief priest
      βασιλευς, βασιλεως, ὁ - king
      γραμματευς, γραμματεως, ὁ - scribe, clerk
      ἱερευς, ἱερεως, ὁ - priest

      3rd decl feminine nouns with genitive in -εως

      ἀναστασις, ἀναστασεως, ἡ - resurrection
      γνωσις, γνωσεως, ἡ - knowledge
      δυναμις, δυναμεως, ἡ - power, miracle
      θλιψις, θλιψεως, ἡ - suffering, oppression
      κρισις, κρισεως, ἡ - judgement
      παρακλησις, παρακλησεως, ἡ - encouragement
      πιστις, πιστεως, ἡ - faith
      πολις, πολεως, ἡ - city, town
      συνειδησις, συνειδησεως, ἡ - conscience

      3rd decl adjectives with genitive in -ους

      ἀληθης, ἀληθους - true, truthful, genuine
      ἀσθενης, ἀσθενους - weak, sick

      πας πασα παν, gen παντος - all, every, whole
      ἁπας - all, every
      εἱς μια ἑν, gen ἑνος - one, a single
      οὐδεις - no one, nothing
      μηδεις - no one, nothing

      3rd decl masculine words with irregular endings

      Μωϋσης (Μωϋσην, Μωϋσεως, Μωϋσει or Μωϋσῃ) - Moses
      νους (νουν, νοος, νοι) - mind

      Lesson 14

      Participles

      This lesson covers active participles.

      Recap

      Mas Nom SActiveMiddle
      Present-ωνῥυ-ομενος
      Aorist-σαςῥυ-σαμενος
      • The Aorist has a σα sound
      • 2nd Aorist uses present endings.

      Participles are verbal adjectives. Roughly the tense covers verb and the form covers the adjective.

      Participles are dependent on a main verb (indicative or sometimes imperative). Present, simultaneous; Aorist, sequential.

      Formation

      Participles ending -ος decline as ἀγαθος.
      Other participles decline as πας
      Present: λυων - Nom sing λυων, λυουσα, λυον, gen λυοντος
      Aorist: λυσας - Nom sing λυσας, λυσασα, λυσαν, gen λυσαντος
      Remove stem for being - ὠν, οὐσα, ὀν, gen ὀντος

      Meaning

      Nominative participle qualifies subject; accusative, object.

      Successive aorist participles are often translated by multiple main verbs.

      Nouns, Causal, Concessive and Instrumental uses

      Nouns, see L7.
      • Causal, ὠν - ‘because he was’ (Matt 1.19)
      • Concessive, γνοντες - ‘although they knew’ (Rom 1.21)
      • Instrumental, ποιων - ‘by doing this’ (1 Tim 4.16)

      Imperatives and Infinitives

      Greek avoids multiple imperatives, infinitives or main verbs by replacing the first with participle. Can translate 'to x and y' not 'having x to y'.

      Vocab

      2nd declension nouns

      ἁμαρτωλος - sinner
      διδασκαλος - teacher
      θρονος - throne
      Ἰακωβος - James
      λιθος - stone
      πρεσβυτερος - old person, elder

      3rd declension nouns

      ἀμπελων, ἀμπελωνος, ὁ - vineyard
      εἰκων, εἰκονος, ἡ - image
      Ἑλλην, Ἑλληνος, ὁ - Greek
      Καισαρ, Καισαρος, ὁ - Caesar
      κριμα, κριματος, ὁ - judgement
      οὐς, ὠτος, το - ear
      παις, παιδος, ὁ - child, servant
      [Plus παιδιον - child or infant (declines like ἐργον)]
      σπερμα, σπερματος, το - seed

      Indeclinable

      πασχα, το - Passover

      More verbs

      ἀγοραζω - I buy
      βλασφημεω - I blaspheme
      διακονεω + dat - I serve
      διαλογιζομαι - I consider, argue, discuss
      ἐλπιζω - I hope
      ἑτοιμαζω - I prepare, make ready
      κρατεω - I grasp, arrest
      μισεω - I hate
      πειραζω - I test, tempt
      πρασσω - I do
      προφητευω - I prophesy
      σκανδαλιζω - I cause to fall/sin
      ὑποτασσω - I subject
      φυλασσω - I guard
      φωνεω - I call (out)
      χαριζομαι - I give freely

      Lesson 15

      Passive and Middle

      The Passive

      After Active and Middle, Passive is the third voice in Greek ‘being untied’

      Prefixes and suffixes

      TenseStem
      Presentλυ
      Futureλυθης
      Imperfectλυ
      Aoristλυθ

      Passive endings

      PresentFutureImperfectAorist
      1s-ομαι-ομαι-ομην-ην
      2s-ῃ-ῃ-ου-ης
      3s-εται-εται-ετο
      1pl-ομεθα-ομεθα-ομεθα-ημεν
      2pl-εσθε-εσθε-εσθε-ητε
      3pl-ονται-ονται-οντο-ησαν
      PresentAorist
      Imp 2s-ου-θητι
      Imp 2pl-εσθε-θητε
      Inf-εσθαι-θηναι
      Participle -ομενος-θεις
      Participle: m λυθεις, f λυθεισα, n λυθεν, m/n gen. λυθεντος

      θ suffix combinations

      • π, β, φ + θ → φθ
      • τ, δ, θ, ζ + θ → σθ
      • κ, γ, χ, σσ + θ → χθ

      Irregular future and aorist passives

      ἠκουσθην - I was heard
      ἐβληθην - I was thrown
      ἠγερθην - I was lifted
      ἐκληθην - I was called
      ἐσωθην - I was saved
      ἐλημφθην - I was taken

      No θ in stem

      (2s Imp is -ηθι not -ητι)
      ἀπεσταλην - I was sent
      ἐγραφην - I was written
      ἐσπαρην - I was sown
      ἐστραφην - I was turned
      ἐφανην - I was shone, I appear

      Other verbs stems

      ἐρρεθην - I say (passive)
      ὠφθην - I was seen
      ἠνεχθην - I was carried

      Understanding the Middle

      Only deponents use middle suffix, but they're used for active meanings. Occasionally have passive suffix for passive meaning.

      Active verbs have passive stem for passive meaning, or rarely special middle.

      Special use of Middle

      Used much more in Classical Greek, the middle expressed actions that affected the subject. Used stylistically in Luke-Acts.

      Passive Deponents as Active

      Four verbs that are active in meaning, despite passive in appearance. The future and aorist are given:

      • βουλησομαι, ἐβουληθην - I wish
      • θοβηθησομαι, ἐφοβηθην - I fear
      • ἀποκρινεομαι [Mid], ἀπεκριθην - I answer
      • πορευσομαι [Mid] (or πορευθησομαι), ἐπορευθην - I go

      Vocab

      2nd declension nouns

      διαβολος - the slanderer, the devil
      καρπος - fruit
      ναος - sanctuary, shrine, temple
      Φιλιππος - Philip
      φοβος - fear
      χρονος - time (period of)

      Verbs that are passive deponents (in some tenses)

      ἀποκρινομαι + dat - I answer
      βουλομαι - I wish
      πορευομαι - I go
      ἐκπορευομαι - I go out
      φοβεομαι - I am afraid, fear

      Normal verbs

      ἁγιαζω - I make holy
      ἀσθενεω - I am weak, sick
      βασταζω - I take up
      γαμεω - I marry
      γνωριζω - I make known
      δουλευω - I am a slave
      ἐκχεω - I pour out
      ἐνδυω - I dress
      ἐπιστρεφω - I turn (back)
      ἡκω - I have come, am present
      ἰσχυω - I am strong
      κελευω - I command
      κλαιω - I weep
      κωλυω - I hinder
      λυπεω - I grieve, pain
      ὀμνυω - I swear, take an oath
      περισσευω - I exceed
      τελεω - I finish, complete
      ὑποστρεφω - I turn back, return
      φαινω - I shine, appear
      φρονεω - I ponder

      Lesson 16

      The Perfect Tense

      The Perfect

      ‘Past event with present effect’ The perfect tense conveys the idea of completion. The aspect is completed; time, past and present. ‘I have completed’. E.g., 'It is written', or 'it has been written'. The first emphasises present action; the second, past.

      ActiveMiddlePassive
      1sλελυκαῥερυμαιλελυμαι
      2sλελυκαςῥερυσαιλελυσαι
      3sλελυκε(ν)ῥερυταιλελυται
      1pλελυκαμενῥερυμεθαλελυμεθα
      2pλελυκατεῥερυσθελελυσθε
      3pλελυκασι(ν)ῥερυνταιλελυνται
      Participles
      ActiveMiddlePassive
      λελυκωςῥερυμενοςλελυμενος
      λελυκως (m), λελυκυια (f), λελυκος (n), λελυκοτος (m/n gen)

      Reduplication

      Consonants
      • Consonant duplicated followed by ε.
      • χ, φ, θ drop ‘h’ sound → κε-, πε-, τε-
      • σ, ζ, ξ sometimes drop ‘s’ sound → ἐ-
      Vowels
      • Doubled by lengthening. α→η, ε→η, ο→ω

      Stems changes occur when consonant followed by consonant in suffix. εω verbs →η. Other consonants follow labial, dental groups etc. Too complicated to learn now.

      Perfect Participles

      No wooden translation other than having untied, which is the same as Aorist. This makes good English more difficult. Perfect Active are rare, Perfect Passive are often equivalent to adjective or Present participle.

      Differences between Perfect and Aorist

      Cannot always translate ‘I have united’. Focus on the meaning of the tenses, not basic English equivalent.

      The Pluperfect Tense

      Very rare in the New Testament. The Pluperfect is a ‘Past state arising from event in the remote part’. As opposed to present state arising from event in past (perfect). ‘I had broken the window’; however, ‘had’ is often not a good translation.

      ActiveMiddle & Passive
      1s(ἐ)λελυκειν(ἐ)λελυμην
      2s(ἐ)λελυκεις(ἐ)λελυσο
      3s(ἐ)λελυκει(ἐ)λελυτο
      1p(ἐ)λελυκειμεν(ἐ)λελυμεθα
      2p(ἐ)λελυκειτε(ἐ)λελυσθε
      3p(ἐ)λελυκεισαν(ἐ)λελυντο

      Vocab

      1st declension feminine nouns

      ἀκοη - fame, report
      ἀσθενεια - weakness, disease
      διδαχη - teaching (act of content)
      ἑορτη - festival
      ἐπιστολη - letter (correspondence)
      θυσια - offering, sacrifice
      κωμη - village
      μαχαιρα - sword
      νεφελη - cloud
      παρουσια - presence, coming
      περιτομη - circumcision
      πορνεια - sexual immorality
      προσευχη - prayer
      ὑπομονη - patience
      φυλη - tribe, nation
      χηρα - widow
      χωρα - country(side)

      Numbers

      τρεις - three (τρια with neuter nouns)
      τεσσαρες - four (τεσσαρα with neuter nouns)
      πεντε - five
      ἑξ - six
      ἑπτα - seven
      ὀκτω - eight
      ἐννεα - nine
      δεκα - ten
      δωδεκα - twelve
      ἑκατον - one hundred
      χιλιας - one thousand
      πρωτος - first
      δευτερος - second
      τριτος - third

      Exclamation

      οὐαι - woe

      Common words with irregular stem in present active

      ἑωρακα - perfect active of ὁραω
      ἀκηκοα - perfect active of ἀκουω

      Lesson 17

      The Subjunctive

      ‘The mode of doubtful assertion’, may or might. All three voices, but only in present and aorist.

      Formation

      Active and Aorist Passive endings are lengthened present indicative endings. -ω, -ῃς, -ῃ, ωμεν, ητε, ωσιν
      Middle and Present Passive endings are lengthened middle indicative endings. -ωμαι, ῃ, ηται, ωμεθα, ησθα, ωνται

      εἰμι - to be

      ὠ, ᾐς, ᾐ, ὠμεν, ἠτε, ὠσιν

      Seven subjunctive uses

      The first two are the most common.

      Indefinite clauses

      Refers to person, place of time that is not definite: ἀν + subj = indefinite. Often particle translated ‘ever’. ὁς ἀν - whoever, ὁπου ἀν - wherever, ὁταν - whenever. Sometimes ἐαν used.

      Purpose clauses

      ἱνα + subj = purpose. Purpose can be translated, ‘in order that they might’, ‘to ...’, ‘in order to’, ‘so that they might’. Occasionally ὁπως used.

      Exhortations (hortatory subjunctive)

      1st plural subj = ‘let us’

      Deliberation (deliberative subjunctive)

      1st person subj = deliberation (what should I do?, where should we go?)

      Prohibitions

      Negative commands are μη + present imperative for process, but μη + aorist subjunctive for default.

      Emphatic negative future

      οὐ μη + aorist subj = emphatic negative future (never, definitely). More emphatic than οὐ and future indicative.

      Conditions

      See Lesson 20

      Vocab

      ἀν - conditional particle
      ἁχρι + gen - until
      ἱνα + subj - in order that
      ὁπως + subj - in order that
      ὁταν + subj - whenever
      ἐαν + subj - alternative for ἀν, or if

      2nd declension nouns

      ἀγρος - field
      ἀνεμος - wind
      διακονος - servant
      ἐχθρος - enemy
      ἡλιος - sun
      οἰνος - wine

      Verbs

      ἀναιρεω - I take away, kill
      κατηγορεω - I accuse
      ὁμολογεω - I promise, confess

      1st declension feminine nouns

      γενεα - family, generation
      γλωσσα - tongue, language
      γραφη - writing, scripture
      διαθηκη - covenant, last will and testamant
      διακονια - service, ministry
      ἐπαγγελια - promise
      ἐπιθυμια - desire
      θυρα - door
      Ἰουδαια - Judea
      μαρτυρια - testimony, witness
      ὀργη - anger, wrath
      σοφια - wisdom
      σωτηρια - salvation
      τιμη - price, value, honour
      φυλακη - watch (guards), prison
      χρεια - need

      An adjective that functions as a noun

      πτωχος - poor

      Lesson 18

      Using verbs

      δυναμαι, καθημαι, κειμαι and οἰδα

      These are states arising from past situations. So, they use Perfect and Pluperfect endings for Present and Imperfect respectively.

      For their participles use perfect endings; infinitive, use present endings without initial vowel. δυναμαι (inf δυνασθαι, mp δυναμενος); οἰδα (inf εἰδεναι, mp εἰδως)

      Uses of the infinitive

      After certain verbs

      δει, δυναμαι etc.

      (Second) subject of an infinitive

      Subject of an infinitive is in accusative, even if second subject (except ἐξεστι, dative). θελω τον ἀγγελον ἀπελθειν. I want the messenger to depart.

      Result clauses (ὡστε)

      Second subject in accusative. Translate ‘so (that)’ or ‘and’.

      Purpose

      Infinitive or ἰνα + subj.

      Articular infinitive

      Place neuter singular article before verb. το ἐσθιειν - (the activity/fact of) eating. Often takes preposition

      • δια (because of)
        • δια το μη αἰτεισθαι ὑμας – because you do not ask.
        • εις or προς (with a view to / aiming at / leading to)
        • μετα (after)
        • προ (before)
        • ἐν (during/while)
          • ἐν τῳ σπειρειν – as he sowed.

        Third person imperatives

        They mean ‘Let him/her/it/them ...’ (‘he/she/it/they should’, not ‘allow them to’). Endings τω/θω (s), -τωσαν/-θωσαν (pl).
        Present ActiveAorist ActivePresent Middle/ PassiveAorist MiddleAorist Passive
        Sλυετωλυσατωῥυεσθωῥυσασθωλυθητω
        Plλυετωσανλυσατωσανῥυεσθωσανῥυσασθωσανλυθητωσαν

        If someone has ears to hear, let him hear/he should hear (Mark 4.23)

        Principal parts

        Lists Morphology table.

        Aspect and Time in Tenses

        Occasionally time is ignored, even in Aorist.

        Vocab

        Adjectives

        ἀξιος - worthy
        δεξιος - right (hand)
        δυνατος - powerful, capable, able
        ἐλευθερος - free
        ἐσχατος - last, least
        ἱκανος - sufficient
        ἰσχυρος - strong
        λευκος - white, bright
        λοιπος - remaining
        μεσος - middle
        νεος - new, young
        ὀλιγος - small, little (pl few)
        πλουσιος - rich
        πνευματικος - spiritual
        φιλος - loved, friendly, friend

        Nouns

        μαρτυς, μαρτυρος, ὁ - witness
        μισθος - pay, wages
        σταυρος - cross

        Verbs

        αὐξανω - I grow
        καθαριζω - I make/declare clean
        καθιζω - I cause to sit down
        δυναμαι - I can, I am able
        καθημαι - I sit (down)
        κειμαι - I lie, recline
        οἰδα - I know
        παρειμι - I am present

        Other

        ὡστε + inf - with the result that

        α prefix for negation

        ἀδικεω - I do wrong
        ἀδικια - wrongdoing
        καθαρος - clean, pure
        ἀκαθαρτος - impure, unclean
        ἀπιστος - unbelieving, faithless

        Lesson 19

        -μι, -αω and -οω verbs

        -μι verbs

        Present stem is longer than verbal stem by reduplication. Form by repeating first consonant (or add h sound for vowels or σ), then add ι. θε →τιθε, στα → ἱστα

        Parsing

        Present stemPresent
        Present stem + augmentImperfect
        Verbal stem + σ suffixFut Ind (or 1st Aorist other mood)
        Verbal stem + aug + σ suffix1st Aorist Active Indicative
        Verbal stem + augment2nd Aorist Active Indicative
        Verbal stem2nd Aorist other mood
        Verbal stem + θAorist Passive (+ aug in Indicative)
        Verbal stem + θησFuture Passive
        Verbal stem reduplicatedPerfect
        * When two θ follow, the first becomes τ
        διδωμι and τιθημι use 1st Aorist in Indicative, but 2nd in other moods.
        Indicative singular lengthens final vowel. στα -> στη

        ἱστημι is transitive, unless Perfect Active, Future Middle, 2nd Aorist Active or Aorist Passive.

        -αω and -οω verbs (like -εω)

        Contractions

        α + ε/η → α
        α + ο/ω/ου → ω
        α + any ι → ᾳ
        α → η (in other tenses)

        ο + short vowel or ου → ου
        ο + long vowel → ω
        ο + any ι → οι
        ο → ω (in other tenses)

        Note

        Present infinitive is -εν not -ειν
        Imperfect active 3s drops final (ν)
        Some -εω verbs keep ε in other tenses

        Vocab

        -μι

        διδωμι - I give
        ἀποδιδωμι - I give away
        παραδιδωμι - I hand over, I entrust
        ἱστημι - I cause to stand (transitive), stand (intransitive)
        ἀνιστημι - I raise
        παριστημι - I place beside
        τιθημι - I put, place
        ἐπιτιθημι - I put, place upon
        ἀφιημι - I leave, forgive, dismiss
        συνιημι - I understand
        ἀπολλυμι - I ruin, destroy (middle I perish)
        δεικνυμι - I point out, show
        πιμπλημι - I fulfil
        φημι - I say

        -αω

        ἀγαπαω - I love
        γενναω - I bear (beget) (Passive - I am born)
        διψαω - I thirst (for)
        ἐρωταω + acc + acc - I ask + double acc.
        ἐπερωταω + acc + acc - I ask (for) + double acc.
        ζαω - I live (contracts to η)
        ἰαομαι - I heal (α remains in other tenses)
        κοπιαω - I labour
        νικαω - I overcome
        πειναω - I hunger
        πλαναω - I deceive, lead astray
        τιμαω - I honour, value
        ἐπιτιμαω - I rebuke

        -οω

        δικαιοω - I justify
        πληροω - I fulfil, fill, complete
        σταυροω - I crucify
        τελειοω - I accomplish, complete
        φανεροω - I reveal, make known

        Lesson 20

        Final pieces

        Conditions

        Basic conditional (εἰ + Inf)

        Basic conditional sentence have two parts, protasis ‘if’ and apodosis ‘then’.

        Indefinite conditions (ἐαν + Subj)

        About the future or addressing a generic (or hypothetical) situation without a particular occasion in mind.

        Contrary to fact (ἀν)

        ἀν placed in apodosis means speaker thinks the protasis is false. We use ‘would’ in English apodosis ('if you liked Greek, you would have learnt it'). Unusually for indicative, negative uses μη. Uses imperfect and aorist for present and past time.

        The Genitive absolute

        Is a noun with agreeing participle separated off (Latin ab-solutus) from sentence. They normally occur at the beginning of the sentence. Often give background information of time or circumstances. ‘Evening having happened, he comes with the twelve’ Mark 14.17. Translated, when, while, having...

        Periphrastics

        Akin to ‘I was going’, using auxiliary word was.

        Present/Imperfect/Future of εἰμι + present participle

        Perfect/Pluperfect/Future Perfect of εἰμι + perfect participle.

        In Classical Greek, periphrastic construction emphasised continuous force of participle. Probably not used as such in Koine Greek.

        Comparison

        You can form adverbs from any adjective and from this the comparative and superlative. Remember adjectives decline (ch 5), adverbs don't. -ως endings are adverbs.

        Formation

        If last vowel of stem is short becomes ω, else if long or diphthong becomes ο.
        • Comparative -τερ-
        • Superlative -τατ-
        Adjective: σοφος → σοφωτερος → σοφωτατος (wise, wiser (more wise), wisest (most/very wise))
        Adverb: σοφως → σοφωτερον → σοφωτατα (wisely, more wisely, most/very wisely)

        Many are irregular

        κακος → ζειπων (bad → worse)

        The Optative

        Sixth mood, less certain than the Subjunctive [hesitancy]. Used for wishes and indirect questions. Was used especially in Classical Greek, rarely in Koine, unless trying to imitate Classical Greek such as in Luke. Formed like Subjunctive, but rather than η or ω had diphthong οι or αι.

        Vocab

        Adverbs, comparatives and superlatives

        ἀληθως - truly
        ἐλαχιστος - smallest
        εὐ - well
        κρεισσων - better

        μαλιστα - most of all
        μαλλον - more, rather
        μικρον - a little, a short time
        μικρος - small
        χειρων - worse

        Nouns

        ζῳον - living thing
        θυσιαστηριον - altar
        ποιμην, ποιμενος, ὁ - shepherd

        Verbs

        θεαομαι - I see, look at
        καυχαομαι - I boast
        μιμνῃσκομαι + gen - I remember
        νιπτω - I wash

        Principal Parts

        Principal Parts

        PresentFutureAorist ActivePerfect ActivePerfect PassiveAorist Passive
        λύωλύσωἔλυσαλέλυκαλέλυμαιἐλύθην
        φιλέωφιλήσωἐφίλησαπεφίληκαπεφίλημαιἐφιλήθην
        τιμάωτιμήσωἐτίμησατετίμηκατετίμημαιἐτιμήθην
        πληρόωπληρώσωἐπλήρωσαπεπλήρωκαπεπλήρωμαιἐπληρώθην
        κηρύσσωκηρύξωἐκήρυξακεκήρυχακεκήρυγμαιἐκηρύχθην
        πράσσωπράξωἔπραξαπέπραχαπέπραγμαιἐπράχθην
        ἀγγἐλλωἀγγελεωἤγγειλαἤγγελκαἤγελμαιἠκγγέλην
        ἄγωἄξωἤγαγονἦχαἤγμαιἤχθην
        αἴρωἀρεωἦραἦρκαἦρμαιἤρθην
        ἀκούωἀκούσωἤκουσαἀκήκοαἤκουσμαιἠκούσθην
        ἀνοίγωἀνοίξωἀνέωξαἀνλεωγαάνέωγμαιάνεώχθην
        ἁμαρτάνωἁμαρτήσωἥμαρτονἡμάρτηκαἡμάρτημαιἡμαρτήθην
        -βαίνω-βήσομαι-έβην-βέβηκα
        βάλλωβαλεωἔβαλονβέβληκαβέβλημαιἐβλήθην
        γίνομαιγενήσομαιἐγενόμηνγέγοναγεγένημαιἐγενήθην
        γινώσκωγνώσομαιἔγνωνἔγνωκαἔγνωσμαιἐγνώσθην
        γράφωγράψωἔγραψαγέγραφαγέγραμμαιἐγράφην
        δέχομαιδέξομαιἐδεξάμηνδέδεγμαιἐδέχθην
        ἐγείρωἐγερεωἤγειραἐγήγερκαἐγήγερμαιἠγέρθην
        εὑρίσκωεὑρήσωεὗρονεὕρηκαεὕρημαιεὑρέθην
        θέλωθελήσωἠθέλησαἠθέληκαἐθελήθην
        -θνῄσκω-θανοῦμαι-έθανον-τέθνηκα
        καλέωκαλέσωἐκάλεσακέκληκακέκλημαιἐκλήθην
        κράζωκράξωἔκραξακέκραγα
        κρίνωκρινεωἔκρινακέκρικακέκριμαιἐκρίθην
        λαμβάνωλήμψομαιἔλαβονεἴληφαεἴλημμαιἐλήμφθην
        λείπωλείψωἔλιπονλέλοιπαλέλειμμαιἐλείφθην
        μανθάνωμαθήσομαιἔμαθονμεμάθηκα
        πάσχωπασχονἔπαθονπέπονθα
        πείθωπείσωἔπεισαπέποιθαπέπεισμαιἐπείσθην
        πίνωπίομαιἔπιονπέπωκαπέπομαιἐπόθην
        πίπτωπεσοῦμαιἔπεσονπέπτωκα
        σπείρωσπερεωἔσπειραἔσπαρκαἔσπαρμαιἐσπάρην
        -στέλλω-στελεω-έστειλα-έσταλκα-έσταλμαι-εστάλην
        σῴζωσώσωἔσωσασέσωκασέσω/σμαιἐσώθην
        φεύγωφεύξομαιἔφυγονπέφευγα
        ἔρχομαιἐλεύσομαιἦλθονἐλήλυθα
        ἐσθίωφάγομαιἔφαγονἐδήδοκαἐδήδεσμαι
        ἔχωἕξωἔσχονἔσχηκαἔσχημαι
        λέγωἐρεωεἶπονεἴρηκαεἴρημαιἐρρέθην
        ὁράωὄψομαιεἶδονἑώρακαἐώραμαιὤφθην
        φέρωοἴσωἤνεγκαἐνήνοχαἐνήνεκμαιἠνέχθην
        τίθημιθήσωἔθηκατέθεικατέθειμαιἐτέθην
        δίδωμιδώσωἔδωκαδέδωκαδέδομαιἐδόθην
        ἵστημιστήσωἔστησαἕστηκαἔστημαιἐστάθην
        ἀφίημιἀφήσωἀφῆκαἀφεῖκαἀφέωμαιἀφέθην
        ἀπόλλυμιἀπολέσωἀπώλεσαἀπόλωλα
        δείκνυμιδείξωἔδειξαδέδειχαδέδειγμαιἐδείχθην

        Exercises

        View comments