Greek Wed 2 Nov 16   (Updated Thu 7 May 20)

Table of contents

Lesson 1

The alphabet

This lesson introduces the Greek alphabet, pronunciation, and punctuation.

Greek Alphabet

LetterCalledPronunciationTranslit.
α Αἀλφαhata
β Ββηταbb
γ Γγαμμαget hard gg
δ Δδελταdd
ε Εἐψιλονmet short ee
ζ Ζζηταzz
η Ηἠταobey long e
θ Θθηταthth
ι Ιἰωταhiti
κ Κκαππαkk
λ Λλαμβδαll
μ Μμυmm
ν Ννυnn
ξ Ξξιxx
ο Οὀμικρονnot short oo
π Ππιpp
ρ Ρῥωrr or rh
σ ς Σσιγμαss
τ Τταυtt
υ Υὐψιλονuu
φΦφιfph or f
χ Χ χιloch hardch or kh
ψ Ψψιlipsps
ω Ωὠμεγαtone long o

Breathing

A letter can be pronounced rough or smooth. If a word begins with a vowel (or ρ), breathing is added to show how it's pronounced. All other vowels have smooth breathing.

  • Rough breathing ( ‘ ) adds an 'h' sound/ aspiration (ἁγιος = hagios)
  • Smooth breathing ( ’ ) adds nothing to the pronunciation (ἀγγελος = angelos).

Diphthongs

When two verbs are pronounced together this is called a diphthong. When a diphthong starts a word, the breathing is placed over the final vowel (οὺδε).
Pronunciation
αιThailand or eye
ειveil or say
οιoil
υιquit
αυhow
ουsoup
ευ / ηυfeud or you
Some vowel pairs are pronounced separately ἐαν (e-an), υἱος (hui-os).

Iota subscript

Iota subscript is a special form of diphthong. It occurs when an iota follows a long vowel (long α, η, ω) becoming (ᾳ, ῃ, ῳ), particularly at the end of a word. The iota is not pronounced.

Punctuation

Punctuation is not in the original, but added by later editors.
; = question mark (?)
· (above the line) = semi-colon or colon (; or :)
. = full stop (.)
, = comma (,)

γγ, ng

γγ is pronounced ng

Vocab

και - and
’Αβρααμ - Abraham
ἀμην - amen, truly
Δαυιδ - David
ῥαββι - Rabbi
’Ιακωβ - Jacob
’Ισραηλ - Israel
’Ιωσηφ - Joseph

Lesson 2

Basic sentences

This lesson introduces basic verbs, nouns, nominative and accusative cases, verb agreement as well as the article.

Verbs

Present Indicative Active Conjugation

Conjugation
1s
2s-εις
3s-ει
1pl-ομεν
2pl-ετε
3pl-ουσι(ν)

The conjugation of a verb is a stem plus ending, such as λεγ-ω.

-εω verb contractions

-εω vowels contract.
  • ε+ε→ει
  • ε+ο→ου
  • ε+long vowel or diphthong→ removes ε

Nouns

Nominative and Accusative

Nouns are made up of stems and endings. They decline (rather than conjugate as with verbs), but their declension is more varied than verb conjugations.

Noun endings change depending on the case (nom, acc etc.) and number (s, pl).
-ος, -οι; -ον, -ους etc.

Sentences: subject-verb agreement

A sentence must have a subject and verb and these must agree in number. We sometimes see this in English, 'he sees', 'they see'. Compare δουλος βλεπει and δουλοι βλεπουσιν.

The Article

Greek has no indefinite article (a), only the definite (the). Greek adds the article before names, some abstract nouns (non-concrete objects) and sometimes θεος - ignore these.

In the masculine gender, the article declines as follows:
SingularPlural
Nominativeοἱ
Accusativeτοντους

Vocab

Verbs

ἀγω - I lead, bring
ἀκουω - I hear, listen to [+acc of thing heard; +gen of person heard - LIII]
βαλλω - I throw
βλεπω - I see, watch
διδασκω - I teach
ἐχω - I have, hold
λαμβανω - I take, receive
λεγω - I say, speak, tell
λυω - I untie

-εω verbs

ζητεω - I seek
καλεω - I call
λαλεω - I speak, say
ποιεω - I do, make
τηρεω - I keep
φιλεω - I love, like

Nouns

ἀγγελος - messenger, angel
ἀδελφος - brother
ἀρτος - bread
δουλος - slave
θεος - god, God
κοσμος - world
κυριος - lord, master, sir
λογος - word, message
νομος - law
οἰκος - household, house
οὐρανος - heaven
ὀχλος - crowd
υἱος - son
Χριστος - Christ, Messiah

ἀνθρωπος - human being(s), person(s). Pl. A number of persons.
λαος - people(s), i.e. nation. Use ἀνθρωπος (pl) for a number of persons.

Lesson 3

Cases and gender

This lesson introduces cases and gender.

Genitive and Dative

Usually, genitive refers to possession of ('s); dative to or for an indirect object.

Verbs usually, but don't always 'govern' a noun in the accusative. Especially for some verbs, it can also be genitive or dative. For instance, ἀκουω - I hear, listen to +acc of thing heard; +gen of person heard.

Neuter plural nouns

Note, neuter plural nouns normally take a single verb. The children keep (s τηρει) the law.

The Definite Article and noun endings

S-M-Nom and S-N-Nom+Acc differ in ending to the article.
  The M   F   N  
    Article Noun Article Noun Article Noun
Sng Nom λογος ἀρχη το ἐργον
  Acc τον λογον την ἀρχην το ἐργον
  Gen του λογου της  ἀρχης του ἐργου
  Dat τῳ λογῳ τῃ ἀρχῃ τῳ ἐργῳ
Pl Nom οἱ λογοι αἱ ἀρχαι τα ἐργα
  Acc τους λογους τας ἀρχας τα ἐργα
  Gen των λογων των ἀρχων των ἐργων
  Dat τοις  λογοις ταις  ἀρχαις τοις  ἐργοις

Variant feminine forms

There are three patterns for feminine nouns in the singular, they are the same in plural. Most follow ἀρχη, see above. The article is still the same.

The rules for forms depend on the letter before the ending:

  • A vowel or ρ goes like ἡμερα
  • σ, ξ, ζ ('s' sounds) goes like δοξα
  • anything else, goes like ἀρχη
(ζωη is an exception)

(day)(glory)(beginning)
Nomἡμεραδοξαἀρχη
Accἡμερανδοξανἀρχην
Genἡμεραςδοξηςἀρχης
Datἡμερᾳδοξῃἀρχῃ

The vocative

Fifth case, rare and simple. Its case is similar to the nominative, except Mas. sing. λογε not λογος. κυριε for lord.

Special words

Jesus

Nom. ’Ιησους
Acc. ’Ιησουν
Gen. ’Ιησου
Dat. ’Ιησου
Voc. ’Ιησου

He/she/it

αὐ- + Def Art means he/she/it. Except αὐτος for he (this is rarely used). Takes definite article before noun in genitive.

Vocab

Update

ἀκουω - I hear, listen to + acc. of thing heard; + gen. of person heard

17 feminine nouns

ἀγαπη - love
ἀδελφη - sister
ἀρχη - beginning
γη - earth, soil, land
ζωη - life
φωνη - sound, voice
ψυξη - soul, self

ἁμαρτια - sin
βασιλεια - reign, kingship, kingdom
ἐκκλησια - assembly (later church)
ἡμερα - day
καρδια - heart
Μαρια (also Heb. form Μαριαμ) - Mary
οἰκια - house, household
ὡρα - hour, occasion

δοξα - splendour, glory
θαλασσα - sea, lake

Neuter nouns

βιβλιον - book, scroll
δαιμονιον - demon
ἐργον - work, deed
εὐαγγελιον - good news, gospel
ἱερον - temple
πλοιον - boat
προσωπον - face
σαββατον - Sabbath
σημειον - sign, miracle
τεκνον - child

Special

αὐτος αὐτη αὐτο - he, she, it, they (note S M Nom is -ος).

’Ιησους - Jesus
Παυλος - Paul
Πετρος - Peter

πιστευω + dat - I believe (in), trust, have faith in

Lesson 4

Prepositions

This lesson introduces prepositions. Prepositions determine the case of the noun they precede. The meaning of some prepositions varies with case.

Elision

When prepositions that end in a vowel occur before a vowel, the following rules apply:

  • ἀπο, δια, ἐπι, κατα, μετα, παρα, ὑπο drop their final vowel
  • ἐξω, περι and προ remain unchanged
  • ἐκ becomes ἐξ

If a vowel has a rough breathing, a final τ becomes θ and a final π becomes φ. μετα → μεθ’ and ἀπο → ἀφ’.

Instruments and Agents

  • An instrument is an inanimate object by means of which the action of the verb happens. Usually seen in the dative without preposition (sometimes ἐν + dat). λογῳ - with a word.
  • An agent is a living being by means of which the action of the verb happens. Normally ὐπο + gen.
  • 'With' meaning along with rather than 'by means of' is μετα + gen. (or occasionally συν + dat).

Compound Verbs

Elisions used in forming, such as ἀπαγω - I lead away

Questions

Identified by use of a question word or tone of voice (see punctuation).

Negatives

  • οὐ - before a consonant
  • οὐκ - before a vowel with smooth breathing
  • οὐχ - before a vowel with hard breathing

Vocab

Prepositions

ἀπο + gen - (away) from
δια + acc - because of; + gen - through
εἰς + acc - into
ἐκ + gen - (out of) from
ἐν + dat - in
ἐνωπιον + gen - in front of, in the presence of
ἐξω + gen - outside
ἐπι + acc - onto; + gen - on, in the time of; + dat - on, in, on the basis of
ἑως + gen - until
κατα + acc - according to; + gen - against
μετα + acc - after; + gen - with
παρα + acc - alongside; + gen - from beside; + dat - beside
περι + acc - around, approximately; + gen - concerning, about
προ + gen - before
προς + acc - to, towards
συν + dat - together with
ὑπερ + acc - above; + gen - on behalf of
ὑπο + acc - under; + gen - by, at the hands of

Compound verbs

ἀναβλεπω - I look up, receive sight
ἀπολυω - I set free, divorce, dismiss
ἐκβαλλω - I drive out, cast out, throw out
ἐπικαλεω - I call upon, name
κατοικεω - I dwell, inhabit, live
παρακαλεω - I exhort, request, comfort, encourage
παραλαμβανω - I take, receive
περιπατεω - I walk about, live
προσκυνεω + dat - I worship
συναγω - I gather, bring together
ὑπαγω - I depart

Questions words

πως - how?
που - where?
οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ - not

Lesson 5

Adjectives

This lesson introduces adjectives, the verb to be and word order in sentences.

Formation of adjectives

Adjectives must agree with their noun. Their endings follow normal noun endings. As with feminine nouns, F-S adjectives whose stem ends in vowel or ρ have endings in α not η (recall ἡμερα). No adjectives are like δοξα.

Uses of adjectives

Attributive use of adjectives

The most common use of adjectives is where the adjective defines more precisely an attribute of a noun or pronoun. Such as 'The beautiful land.' The adjective qualifies or describes the noun.
  • βλεπουσιν την καλην γην (as in English)
  • βλεπουσιν την γην την καλην

If an adjective can be removed it's attributive, not predicative.

Note, adjectives for indefinite nouns contain no article.

Predicative use of adjectives

The law is holy. An adjective can complete a sentence (as a complement not object), this is the predicative use. (Clause, containing verb stating something about subject.)
  • ὁ νομος ἐστιν ἁγιος
  • ἁγιος [ἐστιν] ὁ νομος

Predicative adjectives are never immediately preceded by the article.

The verb 'to be' is sometimes dropped. Look for missing verbs and predicative case.

Substantive use of adjectives (as nouns)

Place an article before the adjective for the substantive use ('the ... man/woman/thing'). Case dictates if it refers to a man, woman or thing.

  • ὀ ἀγαθος the good man; τα ἀγια the holy things; οἱ νεκροι the dead (ones)

Irregular adjectives: πολυς and μεγας

Note, for these, Mas+Neut-Nom+Acc stems are truncated.

Word order in sentences

Words order matters less in Greek. However, the word that comes first carries more stress. In long sentences, the final word also carries much stress.

Sandwich structure places the genitive or dative between the definite article and noun.

  • βλεπω το του κυριου ἱερον.

(*Note the article may be repeated before genitive or preposition)

To Be

εἰμι - I am
εἶ - you (s) are
ἐστι(ν) - he/she/it is
ἐσμεν - we are
ἐστε - you (pl) are
ἐισι(ν) - they are
Note, the circumflex distinguishes εἶ from εἰ – if.

Preparatory use

If ἐστι(ν) or εἰσι(ν) are placed first in a sentence, they become 'there is' or 'there are'.

Nouns as complements

Complements (see predicative use of adjectives) can be nouns. These complements still match the case of the noun they describe.
  • ὁ υἱος ἐστιν ὀ κυριος
ἐστιν doesn't function as equals. E.g., The son is the lord differs from the lord is the son. To distinguish subject from object, the subject comes first, or the article is dropped from the complement (κυριος ἐστιν ὁ υἱος). If the complement precedes the subject it cannot have the definite article.

Vocab

Adjectives

ἀγαθος - good
ἀγαπητος - beloved
ἁγιος - holy
δικαιος - upright, just
ἑκαστος - each
ἑτερος - another, different
ἰδιος - one's own
Ἰουδαιος - Jewish, a Jew
καινος - new
κακος - bad
καλος - beautiful, good
μακαριος - blessed, happy
μονος - only, alone
νεκρος - dead
ὁσος - as/how great, as/how much
πιστος - faithful, believing
πονηρος - evil, wicked
τυφλος - blind

μεγας μεγαλη μεγα - large, great
πολυς πολλη πολυ - much, many

Feminine nouns

Γαλιλαια - Galilee
εἰρηνη - peace
κεφαλη - head
συναγωγη - synagogue

Conjunctions

ἀλλα - but
εἰ - if (no circumflex)
ἠ - or
ὡς - as, like

Plus

καιρος - time, season
εἰμι - I am

Ἱεροσολυμα N Pl or Ἰερουσαλημ F S - Jerusalem
αἰωνιος - eternal (always masculine form)

Lesson 6

Tenses

This lesson introduces the four main tenses that accompany verbs. (It focuses in the indicative mood, where tense describes time and aspect.)

Four tenses defined

Prefixes and suffixes

TenseStemEnding
Presentλυω
Futureλυσω
Imperfectλυον
Aoristλυσα

Meaning of tenses

TenseTimeAspectEnglish
PresentPresentProcess or UndefinedI am untying or I untie
FutureFutureUndefinedI will untie
ImperfectPastProcessI was untying/used to/began to
AoristPastUndefinedI untied
PerfectPast & PresentCompletedI have untied

Aspect

  • Process: ongoing (continuous or repeated).
  • Undefined: Undefined, nothing about manner. Or, one-time only.
    • [Aorist can be used as perfect, Heb 1.2]

Imperfect uses

I was (continuous), used to (repeated), began to (just beginning).

Verb endings

PresentFutureImperfectAorist
1sλυ-ωλυσ-ωἐλυ-ονἐλυσ-α
2sλυ-ειςλυσ-ειςἐλυ-εςἐλυσ-ας
3sλυ-ειλυσ-ειἐλυ-ε(ν)ἐλυσ-ε(ν)
1plλυ-ομενλυσ-ομενἐλυ-ομενἐλυσ-αμεν
2plλυ-ετελυσ-ετεἐλυ-ετεἐλυσ-ατε
3plλυ-ουσι(ν)λυσ-ουσι(ν)ἐλυ-ονἐλυσ-αν

Contractions

ἐ prefix lengthening

  • ἐ+α→η
  • ἐ+ε→η
  • ἐ+ο→ω
Diphthongs follow this logic
  • ἐ+αι→ῃ, but ἐ+αυ→ηυ
  • ἐ+ει→ῃ, but ἐ+ευ→ηυ (often left ευ)
  • ἐ+οι→ῳ
Very few verbs begin with η or ω in their basic form. Thus words beginning this way are likely to be in the Imperfect or Aorist. βλεψω - I will see.

Compound verbs

With imperfect and aorist verbs, the augment (ἐ) is added between the preposition and stem. Watch out for elisions.
Examples, ἀπελυον, ἐξεβαλλον, ὑπηγον, συνηγον.

σ suffix combinations

  • π, β, φ + σ → ψ
  • τ, δ, θ, ζ + σ → σ
  • κ, γ, χ, σσ + σ → ξ
* κραζω behaves like κρασσω
* ἐχω is unusual εἰχον (Imperfect) ξω (Future)

Tenses in -εω verbs

The ε in Future and Aorist lengthens to η. Contractions still occur in Imperfect
φιλω, φιλησω φιλουν, φιλησα...

Vocab

Verbs

ἀνοιγω - I open
βαπτιζω - I baptise, dip
γραφω - I write
διωκω - I persecute, pursue
δοξαζω - I praise, glorify
κηρυσσω - I proclaim, preach
κραζω - I cry out
πεμπω - I send
πειθω - I conceive, persuade
σωζω - I save, rescue, heal (also σῳζω)

Compound verbs

ἀποκαλυπτω - I reveal, uncover
προσεχω + dat - I take heed of, pay attention to
ὑπαρχω - I exist, I am

-εω verbs

αἰτεω + acc + acc - I ask (for) *double accusative
εὐλογεω - I speak well of, bless, praise
εὐχαριστεω - I give thanks
οἰκοδομεω - I build (up)

Words of time

ἀρτι - now, just now
ἐτι - still, yet
ἠδη - already
νυν - now
ὁτε - when
οὐκετι - no longer
οὐπω - not yet
παλιν - back, again
παντοτε - always
ποτε - once (at some time)
σημερον - today
τοτε - then
δυο - two

Nouns

Τιμοθεος - Timothy
τοπος - place

Lesson 7

Moods

This lesson introduces moods. Moods indicate the manner in which the action is regarded: statement, command, hypothetical etc.

Five moods

Greek has five moods, we've already seen the indicative and cover the subjunctive later. The indicative behaves differently to the 'other moods', e.g. μη not οὐ - not. These 'other moods' have no future or imperfect tense. Tense refers only to aspect (not time) in these other moods, so they have no augment (ἐ).

Infinite verbs, don't have subject. Instead infinitive and participle act as verbal nouns/adjectives respectively.

MoodExpressesExample
Indicative Statements and questionsI am listening
ImperativeCommandsListen!
InfinitiveGeneral idea of a verbTo listen
ParticipleVerbal adjectiveListening
SubjunctiveUncertaintyI may listen

Imperative

Formation of imperative mood:
PresentAorist
2s-σον
2pl-ετε-σατε
Note, Pl Pre Imp looks like Pl Pre Indicative. Remember, -εω verbs contract: -ει, -ειτε; -ησον,-ησατε

Aorist Imperative is the normal/default imperative (undefined). Present Imperative (process) suggests a repeated or continual command (keep on doing it).

Infinitive

PresentAorist
Infinitive-ειν-σαι
Aorist is default (undefined aspect). Present shows continous or repeated process.
Infinitive tends to convey purpose and follow these verbs: θελω, δει, μελλω, ἐξεστι, it is permitted to ...
Infinitives are verbal nouns, as such they may take an object.

Participles

Participles work alongside the main verb, adding a further layer of meaning. They are very common in Greek. They are verbal adjectives (verbs that behave as adjectives). We first learn the masculine nominative.

Mas.PresentAorist
S-ων-σας
Pl-οντες-σαντες

Participles are dependent upon a main verb (indicative or imperative), as infinite verbs. Aorist participle is default, ‘having untied’. Indicates sequence, the participle occurs before the main verb.

Present participle ‘untying’. The present participle is a process occurring simultaneously with the main verb.

Good English

Avoid wooden translations practising these suggestions.
  • Present: while, as (they were)
  • Aorist: after, when (they had)

Participle with objects

As a verb, participles can take objects in the accusative. With their own object, participles introduce a subordinate clause into the sentence, telling us something extra involving the object.

Participles with nouns

Add the definite article before the participle. When translating often add who.
οἱ ἀκουσαντες = the having heard ones = those who heard

Vocab

Feminine nouns

δικαιοσυνη - righteousness
ἐντολη - commandment
ἐξουσια - authority
παραβολη - parable
παρρησια - outspokenness, boldness
χαρα - joy

Masculine nouns

ἀποστολος - apostle
θανατος - death
ὀφθαλμος - eye
Φαρισαιος - Pharisee

Neuter nouns

θηριον - animal, beast
ἱματιον - garment
μνημειον - tomb, monument
προβατον - sheep

Negatives used in other moods

μη - not
μηδε - and not, but not
μηκετι - no longer
μητε - and not, nor

Verbs

ἀκολουθεω + dat - I follow
ἀναγω - I lead up, restore
δεω - I bind, tie up
δοκεω - I think, seem
ἐλεεω - I have mercy on, pity
θελω (θελησω, ἠθελον, ἠθελησα) - I wish, want
θεωρεω - I look at
καταργεω - I make ineffective, abolish
μαρτυρεω - I bear witness, testify
μελλω - I intend, am about (to)
μετανοεω - I repent, change my mind

3rd singular only verbs

δει - it is necessary (or use must) (3s)
ἐξεστι - it is permitted (3s)

Preposition

ὀπισω + gen - behind

Lesson 8

Other patterns of nouns and verbs

This lesson introduces deponent verbs (Middle Voice) with their conjugations across tenses and moods. Also different tenses and moods of the verb to be. And different gender endings for nouns (different declensions).

Deponent verbs

Said to be in the Middle Voice. These verbs conjugate differently to verbs in the Active Voice (λυω).

Deponent endings

PresentFutureImperfectAorist
1s-ομαι-ομαι-ομην-αμην
2s-ῃ-ῃ-ου
3s-εται-εται-ετο-ατο
1pl-ομεθα-ομεθα-ομεθα-αμεθα
2pl-εσθε-εσθε-εσθε-ασθε
3pl-ονται-ονται-οντο-αντο

Note, deponent ending still contain some -εω contractions. Remember Fut and Aor sigma and Imp and Aor prefix.

Deponent verbs in other moods

PresentAorist
Imp 2s-ου-σαι
Imp 2pl-εσθε-σασθε
Inf-εσθαι-σασθαι
M.N. Part S-ομενος-σαμενος
Part Pl-ομενοι-σαμενοι

Imperfect, future and other moods of ειμι

PresentFutureImperfect
1sεἰμιἐσομαιἠμην
2sεἰἐσῃἠς (or ἠσθα)
3sἐστι(ν)ἐσταιἠν
1plἐσμενἐσομεθαἠμεν (or ἠμεθα)
2plἐστεἐσεσθεἠτε
3plεἰσι(ν)ἐσονταιἠσαν
Present infinitive: εἰναι
Present participles mns. ὠν; mnp. ὀντες – 'being'

Nouns of confusing gender

Some nouns' gender differ from appearance. The definite article still agrees with gender, but the endings don't appear so.

1st declension masculine nouns

-ης-ας
S Nom-ης-ας
Acc-ην-αν
Gen-ου
Dat-ῃ-ᾳ
Pl Nom-αι-αι
Acc-ας-ας
Gen-ων-ων
Dat-αις-αις
S Voc

2nd declension feminine nouns

Decline as 2nd declension masculine nouns such as λογος.

Vocab

Deponent verbs

ἐρχομαι - I come, go
ἀπερχομαι - I depart, go away
διερχομαι - I cross over
εἰσερχομαι - I go into, enter
ἐξερχομαι - I go out, go away
παρερχομαι - I go by, pass by
προσερχομαι - I come to, go to, approach
συνερχομαι - I come together

ἁπτομαι + gen - I touch
ἀρνεομαι - I refuse, deny
ἀρχομαι - I begin
ἀσπαζομαι - I greet
δεχομαι - I receive
ἐργαζομαι - I work
εὐαγγελιζομαι - I proclaim good news (compound εὐ-)
λογιζομαι - I calculate, consider
προσευχομαι - I pray
προσκαλεομαι - I summon
ῥυομαι - I rescue

Masculine nouns

Ἡρῳδης - Herod
Ἰωαννης Ἰωανης - John
μαθητης - disciple
προφητης - prophet
στρατιωτης - soldier
ὑπηρετης - servant

Βαρναβας - Barnabas
Ἰουδας - Judah, Judas
Σατανας - Satan

Ἡλιας - Elijah (gen. -ου)

Three feminine nouns

Αἰγυπτος - Egypt
ἐρημος - wilderness, desolate land
ὁδος - way, road

Lesson 9

Pronouns and conjunctions

Demonstrative pronouns (this and that)

Formation

ἐκεινος (that, pl. those) declines like αὐτος.

οὑτος (this, pl. these) is less regular.

MFN
SNomοὑτοςαὑτητουτο

Accτουτονταυτηντουτο

Genτουτουταυτηςτουτου

Datτουτῳταυτῃτουτῳ
PlNomοὑτοιαὑταιταυτα

Accτουτουςταυταςταυτα

Genτουτωντουτωντουτων

Datτουτοιςταυταιςτουτοις
Ending are the same as αὐτος. Stem similar to article in replacing τ with rough breathing in M-F Nom. First vowel matches ending.

Use as pronouns

Might need to supply person, man, woman or thing. ἀρξεται ταυτα - He will begin these things.

Use as adjectives

Always include the article, but placed as predicative adjectives (i.e, never after article). οὑτος ὁ ἀδελφος - this brother.

Note, ὁλος - whole, entire - declines as adj/noun, but is used like pronoun, before article.

Third person pronouns

αὐτος - ‘same’ or emphatic adjective

This pronoun can be used as an adjective. Either as a normal adjective (between article and noun) meaning ‘same’. ὁ αὐτος κυριος - the same Lord.

Or emphatic adjective (himself, herself, itself, themselves) for emphasis (in predicative position, before article). αὐτος ὁ κυριος - The Lord himself.

ἐαυτος - reflexive pronoun

3rd person reflexive pronoun (himself, herself...). Differs to emphatic pronoun (unlike English which uses same word). Decline like αὐτος, but never in Nom. ὁ κυριος σωζει ἐαυτον - The Lord saves himself. Sentences that can delete ‘himself’ are emphatic.

ἀλλος and ἀλληλος

ἀλλος (adj. other) and ἀλληλος (pron. one another) decline like αὐτος. (Accent ἄλλα distinguishes Net.-Nom. from αλλα).

First and second person pronouns and adjectives

1st and 2nd person pronouns

Used only for emphasis. Genitive pronouns require the article.

1st person pronoun

SingularPlural
NomἐγωIἡμειςwe
Accἐμε or μεmeἡμαςus
Genἐμου or μουof me, mineἡμωνof us, our
Datἐμοι or μοιto/for meἡμινto/for us
Ὁ κυριος μου και ὁ θεος μου - My Lord and my God!

2nd person pronoun

SingularPlural
Nomσυyouὑμεις
Accσεyouὑμας
Genσουof you, yourὑμων
Datσοιto/for youὑμιν

Reflexive pronouns

Myselfἐμαυτος (declines like αὐτος)
Yourself (s)σεαυτος (declines like αὐτος)
Ourselvesἑαυτος (pl)
Yourselvesἑαυτος (pl)

Possessive adjectives

Less common than genitive person pronouns.
ἐμος - my. σος - your (s). Decline like adj/nouns.

Genetive pronouns (as with αὐτος) require the article. οἱ λογοι μου

Conjunctions

Conjunctions join together two sentences.

Post-positive (timid) conjunctions

ἀρα, γαρ, δε, μεν, οὐν, τε (plus ποτε) cannot come first in sentence.

μεν ... δε

one the one hand... on the other hand.
If used with the article οἱ μεν ... οἱ δε means “some... but others”

δε

Is a weak but (ἀλλα is stronger). Often untranslated. Used with article to show subject change - 'He'.

και

Sometimes untranslated at start of sentence. If only for emphasis (and not necessary) translate as ‘also’ or ‘even’. τε ... και - both ... and.
ἠρξατο ὁ ’Ιησους ποιειν τε και διδασκειν - Jesus began both to do and to teach.

Vocab

Pronouns or personal adjectives

ἀλληλος - each other, one another
ἀλλος - other
ἑαυτος - himself, herself, itself (reflexive) (declines as αὐτος)
ἐγω, ἡμεις - I, we
ἐκεινος - that (pl. those)
ἐμαυτος - myself
ἐμος - my, mine
κἀγω - and I (και + ἐγω) - called crasis
ὁλος - whole, entire (declines as adj, used like pronoun)
οὑτος, αὑτη, τουτο - this (pl. these)
ποιος - of what kind?
ποσος - how great, how much?
σεαυτος - yourself
σος - your, yours (s)
συ, ὑμεις - you (s), you (pl)
τοιουτος - of such a kind, such

Conjunctions

ἀρα - so
γαρ - because, for
γε - indeed
δε - but
διο - therefore
διοτι - because
εἰτε - if (εἱτε ... εἱτε - if ... if; whether ... or)
ἐπει - since
μεν - on the one hand
μηποτε - never
οὐν - therefore, consequently
τε - and (τε ... και - both ... and)

Neuter nouns

ἀρνιον - lamb, sheep
δενδρον - tree
μυστηριον - mystery, secret
ποτηριον - cup

Lesson 10

Complex sentences

Complex sentences have two main verbs. Gender case and number determined by sentences.

Relative pronoun

The relative pronoun is equivalent to who (whom, whose, what, which) that joins together two sentences or clauses. Appears in second sentence, but points back to first. It stands in for antecedent (e.g. the Lord sent the messenger, who...), used in first sentence.

Declines similar to the article

MFN
SingNomὁς
Accὁνἡν
Genοὑἡςοὑ
Datᾡᾑᾡ
PlNomοἳαἳ
Accοὑςἁς
Genὡνὡνὡν
Datοἱςαἱςοἱς
Who (nom), whom (acc), whose (gen), whom (dat) for people. Which or what for things.
The rough breathing helps identify the relative pronoun.

Determining which relative

As with English, number and gender agree with antecedent, case determined by context in relative's sentence.

Position or omission of relative

  1. Relative clause may come in middle of complex sentence, not end.
  2. Antecedent is often omitted if it is αὐτος, οὑτος or ἐκεινος (John 5.21)
  3. Relative clause often comes first

Slanted questions

A question expecting the answer. μη - no, οὐ - yes. (Sometimes μητι, οὐτι, οὐχι.) Particle when used as slanted questions often come first in sentence, unlike when used as simple negetives.
Surely, you agree, don’t you?

Direct and indirect statements

Direct Statements

Marked by ὁτι or λεγω (or both or none!) and is equivalent to opening quote.

Indirect statements

Marked by ὁτι (second of three uses) meaning that. Here, Greek uses the tense of the original words ἠκουσες ὁτι Ἰησους ἐρξεται - ‘she heard that Jesus was [lit. is ] coming’

Time expressions

  • How long/for - accusative
  • During/by - genitive
  • At which/on - dative

Vocab

ἀληθεια - truth
ἀληθινος - true, genuine, real
ἐγγυς - near
ἐκει - there (in that place)
ἐκειθεν - from there
εὐθυς - immediately
καθως - just as
καλως - appropriately, well
ναι - yes, of course
ὁμοιος - similar, like
ὁμοιως - likewise
ὁπου - where
ὁς, ἥ, ὅ - who, which, what
ὁτι - that, because, or ‘ (marking the beginning of speech)
οὑ - where
οὐδε - and not
οὐτε - neither - οὐτε... οὐτε - neither ... nor
οὑτως - in this manner, thus
οὐχι - not, no
πλην - however, yet
ποθεν - from where? (or how?)
ὡδε - here

Prepositions

ἐμπροσθεν + gen - in front of
ἑνεκα + gen - for the sake of
περαν + gen - on the other side of
χωρις + gen - separate, apart from

Πιλατος - Pilate

Verbs

ἐγγιζω + dat - I approach, come near
ἡγεομαι - I lead
θαυμαζω - I am amazed
θεραπευω - I heal
καθευδω - I sleep

Lesson 11

Special Verbs

Second Aorists

These verbs have different stems in the aorist tense. This is similar to the difference between walk→walked (1st aorist) and sing→sung (2nd aorist).

Formation

Different stems leads to different endings and no σ. 2nd Aorist verbs have imperfect endings in the indicative and present in other moods.

The indicative form contains the augment (ἐ), which must be carefully removed in other moods.

Unusual endings

γινωσκω and (κατα-)βαινω have unusual endings.

  • Ind. ἐγνων, ἐγνως, ἐγνω, ἐγνωμεν, ἐγνωτε, ἐγνωσαν Imp. γνω, γνωτε, Inf. γνωναι, Part. γνους, γνοντες
  • Ind. κατεβην, κατεβης, κατεβη, κατεβημεν, κατεβητε, κατεβησαν, Imp. καταβηθι, καταβητε, Inf. καταβηναι, Part. καταβας, καταβαντες

Some verbs (ἠλθον, εἰπον, εἰδον, ἠνεγκον) occasionally use 1st Aorist endings (εἰπαν).

Liquid Verbs

Verbs whose stem ends in λ, μ, ν or ρ are liquid. They cannot be followed by σ, so their stem changes in the future and aorist tenses. Stem changes are minimal, shifting between double to single final consonant and long to short final vowel.

Future tense uses εω endings. Circumflex distinguishes future from present liquid verbs, μενεῖς. Common changes between present, future and aorist:

  • Fut short final vowel. σπειρω σπερεω ἐσπειρα; likewise ἐγειρω; ἀποκτεινω
    • Similar is αἰρω ἀρεω ἠρα
  • Double to single consonant. And aorist lengthens final vowel. ἀποστελλω ἀποστελεω ἀπεστειλα; likewise ἀγγελλω
  • Aorist lengthens final vowel. μενω μενεω ἐμεινα; likewise κρινω[?]
  • Some use 2nd aorist and rules. ἀποθνῃσκω ἀποθανεομαι ἀπεθανον; likewise βαλλω

Vocab

ἁμαρτανω (ἡμαρτον) - I do wrong, sin
ἀποθνῃσκω (ἀπεθανον) - I die
γινομαι (ἐγενομην) - I become, happen
παραγινομαι - I arrive, stand by
ἐσθιω (ἐφαγον) - I eat
εὑρισκω (εὑρον) - I find
καταλειπω (κατελιπον) - I leave (behind)
μανθανω (ἐμαθον) - I learn
ὁραω (εἰδον) - I see
πασχω (ἐπαθον) - I suffer
πινω (ἐπιον) - I drink
πιπτω (ἐπεσον) - I fall (down)
φερω (ἠνεγκον) - I bear, carry
προσφερω - I bring to, offer
φευγω (ἐφυγον) - I flee

Liquid verbs

ἀπαγγελλω - I report, announce
παραγγελλω + dat - I order
αἰρω - I take (away), lift up
ἀποκτεινω - I kill
ἀποστελλω - I send (out)
ἐγειρω - I raise up, wake
κρινω - I judge, decide
μενω - I remain
ὀφειλω - I owe
σπειρω - I sow
χαιρω - I rejoice

Verbs with 2nd Aorists with unusual endings

ἀναβαινω (-ἐβην) - I go up
καταβαινω - I go down
γινωσκω (ἐγνων) - I know
ἀναγινωσκω - I read
ἐπιγινωσκω - I recognise

ἰδου - Look! Behold!

Previous verbs with 2nd aorist

ἐβαλον - I threw
ἐλαβον - I took
ἠγαγον - I led
ἐσχον - I had
ἠλθον - I came
εἰπον - I said

Lesson 12

The third declension – part one

The third declension covers all nouns (adjectives and pronouns) that don't follow forms in the first or second family. Masculine and feminine forms are the same. Their nominative singular is irregular, so must be learnt along with the stem (given in genitive).

Masculine and feminine nouns with consonant stems

SingPlu
NomVarious-ες
Acc-ας
Gen-ος-ων
Dat-σι(ν)

Dative plural

The dative plural contracts when following a consonant, given the sigma. Follow contractions from Lesson 6. Also, there are slight changes in vowel sounds.

  • εντ + σιν → εισιν
  • οντ + σιν → ουσιν
  • [αντ + σιν → ασιν]
  • Some other contractions include ἀνδρασιν and χερσιν.

The family group

The following nouns decline in the same irregular pattern.
  • πατηρ, πατρος, ὁ
  • μητηρ, μητρος, ἡ
  • θυγατηρ, θυγατρος, ἡ
SingularPlural
Nomπατηρπατερες
Accπατεραπατερας
Genπατροςπατερων
Datπατριπατρασιν
πατηρ alone has an irregular vocative πατερ.

Neuter nouns with consonant stems

SingPlu
NomVarious
AccAbove-α
Gen-ος-ων
Dat-σι(ν)
Many 3rd declension neuter nouns have stem ending in -ματ.

Adjectives with consonant stems

3rd dcl. Adjectives are same in m/f, but different in neuter. So neuter nom also needed. The most common 3rd decl. adjective is the comparative πλειων (m/fsn), πλειον (nsn), πλειονος (sg). (See also μειζων.)
If showing comparison (more than), these have the second noun in the genitive, or an additional ἠ
SingularPlural
M/FNeutM/FNeut
Nomπλειωνπλειονπλειονεςπλειονα
Accπλειοναπλειονπλειοναςπλειονα
Genπλειονοςπλειονοςπλειονωνπλειονων
Datπλειονιπλειονιπλειοσινπλειοσιν

τις and τίς

These two pronouns decline like πλειων. They are distinguished by accent. τίς often comes first in sentence; τις, never. τίς has question mark follow and accent only on first syllable, not second or none.
  • τις is the indefinite pronoun – someone, anyone
  • τίς is the interrogative pronoun – who? what?
m/f τίς, n τί, gen τίνος

Uses

  • Pronouns.
  • Adjectives. Must agree with noun. What ... Some ...
  • Why? τί only.

Vocab

3rd declension nouns

ἀνηρ, ἀνδρος, ὁ - man (male), husband
ἀστηρ, ἀστερος, ὁ - star
σωτηρ, σωτηρος, ὁ - saviour
αἰων, αἰωνος, ὁ - age (long time) (εἰς τον αἰωνα - into the age, forever)
ἀρχων, ἀρχοντος, ὁ - ruler, leader
Σιμων, Σιμωνος, ὁ - Simon
γυνη, γυναικος, ἡ - woman, wife
ἐλπις, ἐλπιδος, ἡ - hope
νυξ, νυκτος, ἡ - night
πους, ποδος, ὁ - foot
σαρξ, σαρκος, ἡ - flesh
χαρις, χαριτος, ἡ - grace
χειρ, χειρος, ἡ - hand
θυγατηρ, θυγατρος, ἡ - daughter
μητηρ, μητρος, ἡ - mother
πατηρ, πατρος, ὁ - father, ancestor
πυρ, πυρος, το - fire
ὑδωρ, ὑδατος, το - water
φως, φωτος, το - light
αἱμα, αἱματος, το - blood
θελημα, θεληματος, το - will
ὀνομα, ὀνοματος, το - name
πνευμα, πνευματος, το - spirit, wind
ῥημα, ῥηματος, το - word, saying
στομα, στοματος, το - mouth
σωμα, σωματος, το - body

Two adjectives

μειζων - larger, greater
πλειων - more

τις τι - someone, something
τίς τί - who? which? what? (τί can mean why?)
ὁστις - who
ὡσπερ - just as

Lesson 13

The third declension – part two

Nouns with vowel stems

Feminine (frequently abstract) nouns with stem -ι, Nom -ις, Gen -εως.

Masculine (frequently occupational) nouns with stem -ευ, Nom -ευς, Gen -εως

-ις FSP-ευ MSP
Nom-ις-εις-ευς-εις
Acc-ιν-εις-εα-εις
Gen-εως-εων-εως-εων
Dat-ει-εσιν-ει-ευσιν

-υ stem (only common in ἰχθυς) similar to 3 dec consonant stems, except AS -υν. These endings are similar to other 3rd decl. endings.

Neuter nouns and adjectives ending in -ε, genitive -ους

These endings contract (L6), otherwise as other neuter nouns (L12).

Note, in adjectives, m/f acc pl is -εις (same as nom pl).

πας (all/every)

πας is a 3-1-3 hybrid declension. Masculine and Neuter follow the 3rd declension; Feminine, the first. To decline these words requires the nominative in each gender and the M/N genitive (πας, πασα, παν, gen παντος).

In singular, normally translated ‘every’ or ‘whole’. Uses as adjective:

  1. Alone, refers to person/man, woman, thing. παντα all things.
  2. With noun, no article: every. παν δενδρον - every tree.
  3. With noun and article. Usually stands predicatively παντες οἱ ἀρχιερεις - all the chief priests
  4. With article and participle. πας ὁ πιστευων - everyone who believes

εἱς (one)

Only singular, declines as πας (εἱς μια ἑν, gen ἑνος). Note rough breathings distinguish from ἐν (in) ἐις (into).

οὐδεις, μηδεις (no one, nothing)

Decline as εἱς with prefix. Used in indicative and other moods respectively.

Note double negative is still negative. οὐ βλεπω οὐδεν - I do not see anything.

Vocab

3rd decl neuter nouns with genitive in -ους

ἐθνος, ἐθνους, το - nation (pl Gentiles)
ἐλεος, ἐλεους, το - mercy
ἐτος, ἐτους, το - year
μελος, μελους, το - member, part, limb
μερος, μερους, το - part, share
ὀρος, ὀρους, το - mountain, hill
πληθος, πληθους, το - multitude, large amount
σκευος, σκευους , το - object (pl property)
σκοτος, σκοτους, το - darkness
τελος,τελους, το - end, goal

3rd decl masculine nouns with genitive in -εως

ἀρχιερευς, ἀρχιερεως, ὁ - high priest, chief priest
βασιλευς, βασιλεως, ὁ - king
γραμματευς, γραμματεως, ὁ - scribe, clerk
ἱερευς, ἱερεως, ὁ - priest

3rd decl feminine nouns with genitive in -εως

ἀναστασις, ἀναστασεως, ἡ - resurrection
γνωσις, γνωσεως, ἡ - knowledge
δυναμις, δυναμεως, ἡ - power, miracle
θλιψις, θλιψεως, ἡ - suffering, oppression
κρισις, κρισεως, ἡ - judgement
παρακλησις, παρακλησεως, ἡ - encouragement
πιστις, πιστεως, ἡ - faith
πολις, πολεως, ἡ - city, town
συνειδησις, συνειδησεως, ἡ - conscience

3rd decl adjectives with genitive in -ους

ἀληθης, ἀληθους - true, truthful, genuine
ἀσθενης, ἀσθενους - weak, sick

πας πασα παν, gen παντος - all, every, whole
ἁπας - all, every
εἱς μια ἑν, gen ἑνος - one, a single
οὐδεις - no one, nothing
μηδεις - no one, nothing

3rd decl masculine words with irregular endings

Μωϋσης (Μωϋσην, Μωϋσεως, Μωϋσει or Μωϋσῃ) - Moses
νους (νουν, νοος, νοι) - mind

Lesson 14

Participles

This lesson covers active participles.

Recap

Mas Nom SActiveMiddle
Present-ωνῥυ-ομενος
Aorist-σαςῥυ-σαμενος
  • The Aorist has a σα sound
  • 2nd Aorist uses present endings.

Participles are verbal adjectives. Roughly the tense covers verb and the form covers the adjective.

Participles are dependent on a main verb (indicative or sometimes imperative). Present, simultaneous; Aorist, sequential.

Formation

Participles ending -ος decline as ἀγαθος.
Other participles decline as πας
Present: λυων - Nom sing λυων, λυουσα, λυον, gen λυοντος
Aorist: λυσας - Nom sing λυσας, λυσασα, λυσαν, gen λυσαντος
Remove stem for being - ὠν, οὐσα, ὀν, gen ὀντος

Meaning

Nominative participle qualifies subject; accusative, object.

Successive aorist participles are often translated by multiple main verbs.

Nouns, Causal, Concessive and Instrumental uses

Nouns, see L7.
  • Causal, ὠν - ‘because he was’ (Matt 1.19)
  • Concessive, γνοντες - ‘although they knew’ (Rom 1.21)
  • Instrumental, ποιων - ‘by doing this’ (1 Tim 4.16)

Imperatives and Infinitives

Greek avoids multiple imperatives, infinitives or main verbs by replacing the first with participle. Can translate 'to x and y' not 'having x to y'.

Vocab

2nd declension nouns

ἁμαρτωλος - sinner
διδασκαλος - teacher
θρονος - throne
Ἰακωβος - James
λιθος - stone
πρεσβυτερος - old person, elder

3rd declension nouns

ἀμπελων, ἀμπελωνος, ὁ - vineyard
εἰκων, εἰκονος, ἡ - image
Ἑλλην, Ἑλληνος, ὁ - Greek
Καισαρ, Καισαρος, ὁ - Caesar
κριμα, κριματος, ὁ - judgement
οὐς, ὠτος, το - ear
παις, παιδος, ὁ - child, servant
[Plus παιδιον - child or infant (declines like ἐργον)]
σπερμα, σπερματος, το - seed

Indeclinable

πασχα, το - Passover

More verbs

ἀγοραζω - I buy
βλασφημεω - I blaspheme
διακονεω + dat - I serve
διαλογιζομαι - I consider, argue, discuss
ἐλπιζω - I hope
ἑτοιμαζω - I prepare, make ready
κρατεω - I grasp, arrest
μισεω - I hate
πειραζω - I test, tempt
πρασσω - I do
προφητευω - I prophesy
σκανδαλιζω - I cause to fall/sin
ὑποτασσω - I subject
φυλασσω - I guard
φωνεω - I call (out)
χαριζομαι - I give freely

Lesson 15

Passive and Middle

The Passive

After Active and Middle, Passive is the third voice in Greek ‘being untied’

Prefixes and suffixes

TenseStem
Presentλυ
Futureλυθης
Imperfectλυ
Aoristλυθ

Passive endings

PresentFutureImperfectAorist
1s-ομαι-ομαι-ομην-ην
2s-ῃ-ῃ-ου-ης
3s-εται-εται-ετο
1pl-ομεθα-ομεθα-ομεθα-ημεν
2pl-εσθε-εσθε-εσθε-ητε
3pl-ονται-ονται-οντο-ησαν
PresentAorist
Imp 2s-ου-θητι
Imp 2pl-εσθε-θητε
Inf-εσθαι-θηναι
Participle -ομενος-θεις
Participle: m λυθεις, f λυθεισα, n λυθεν, m/n gen. λυθεντος

θ suffix combinations

  • π, β, φ + θ → φθ
  • τ, δ, θ, ζ + θ → σθ
  • κ, γ, χ, σσ + θ → χθ

Irregular future and aorist passives

ἠκουσθην - I was heard
ἐβληθην - I was thrown
ἠγερθην - I was lifted
ἐκληθην - I was called
ἐσωθην - I was saved
ἐλημφθην - I was taken

No θ in stem

(2s Imp is -ηθι not -ητι)
ἀπεσταλην - I was sent
ἐγραφην - I was written
ἐσπαρην - I was sown
ἐστραφην - I was turned
ἐφανην - I was shone, I appear

Other verbs stems

ἐρρεθην - I say (passive)
ὠφθην - I was seen
ἠνεχθην - I was carried

Understanding the Middle

Only deponents use middle suffix, but they're used for active meanings. Occasionally have passive suffix for passive meaning.

Active verbs have passive stem for passive meaning, or rarely special middle.

Special use of Middle

Used much more in Classical Greek, the middle expressed actions that affected the subject. Used stylistically in Luke-Acts.

Passive Deponents as Active

Four verbs that are active in meaning, despite passive in appearance. The future and aorist are given:

  • βουλησομαι, ἐβουληθην - I wish
  • θοβηθησομαι, ἐφοβηθην - I fear
  • ἀποκρινεομαι [Mid], ἀπεκριθην - I answer
  • πορευσομαι [Mid] (or πορευθησομαι), ἐπορευθην - I go

Vocab

2nd declension nouns

διαβολος - the slanderer, the devil
καρπος - fruit
ναος - sanctuary, shrine, temple
Φιλιππος - Philip
φοβος - fear
χρονος - time (period of)

Verbs that are passive deponents (in some tenses)

ἀποκρινομαι + dat - I answer
βουλομαι - I wish
πορευομαι - I go
ἐκπορευομαι - I go out
φοβεομαι - I am afraid, fear

Normal verbs

ἁγιαζω - I make holy
ἀσθενεω - I am weak, sick
βασταζω - I take up
γαμεω - I marry
γνωριζω - I make known
δουλευω - I am a slave
ἐκχεω - I pour out
ἐνδυω - I dress
ἐπιστρεφω - I turn (back)
ἡκω - I have come, am present
ἰσχυω - I am strong
κελευω - I command
κλαιω - I weep
κωλυω - I hinder
λυπεω - I grieve, pain
ὀμνυω - I swear, take an oath
περισσευω - I exceed
τελεω - I finish, complete
ὑποστρεφω - I turn back, return
φαινω - I shine, appear
φρονεω - I ponder

Lesson 16

The Perfect Tense

The Perfect

‘Past event with present effect’ The perfect tense conveys the idea of completion. The aspect is completed; time, past and present. ‘I have completed’. E.g., 'It is written', or 'it has been written'. The first emphasises present action; the second, past.

ActiveMiddlePassive
1sλελυκαῥερυμαιλελυμαι
2sλελυκαςῥερυσαιλελυσαι
3sλελυκε(ν)ῥερυταιλελυται
1pλελυκαμενῥερυμεθαλελυμεθα
2pλελυκατεῥερυσθελελυσθε
3pλελυκασι(ν)ῥερυνταιλελυνται
Participles
ActiveMiddlePassive
λελυκωςῥερυμενοςλελυμενος
λελυκως (m), λελυκυια (f), λελυκος (n), λελυκοτος (m/n gen)

Reduplication

Consonants
  • Consonant duplicated followed by ε.
  • χ, φ, θ drop ‘h’ sound → κε-, πε-, τε-
  • σ, ζ, ξ sometimes drop ‘s’ sound → ἐ-
Vowels
  • Doubled by lengthening. α→η, ε→η, ο→ω

Stems changes occur when consonant followed by consonant in suffix. εω verbs →η. Other consonants follow labial, dental groups etc. Too complicated to learn now.

Perfect Participles

No wooden translation other than having untied, which is the same as Aorist. This makes good English more difficult. Perfect Active are rare, Perfect Passive are often equivalent to adjective or Present participle.

Differences between Perfect and Aorist

Cannot always translate ‘I have united’. Focus on the meaning of the tenses, not basic English equivalent.

The Pluperfect Tense

Very rare in the New Testament. The Pluperfect is a ‘Past state arising from event in the remote part’. As opposed to present state arising from event in past (perfect). ‘I had broken the window’; however, ‘had’ is often not a good translation.

ActiveMiddle & Passive
1s(ἐ)λελυκειν(ἐ)λελυμην
2s(ἐ)λελυκεις(ἐ)λελυσο
3s(ἐ)λελυκει(ἐ)λελυτο
1p(ἐ)λελυκειμεν(ἐ)λελυμεθα
2p(ἐ)λελυκειτε(ἐ)λελυσθε
3p(ἐ)λελυκεισαν(ἐ)λελυντο

Vocab

1st declension feminine nouns

ἀκοη - fame, report
ἀσθενεια - weakness, disease
διδαχη - teaching (act of content)
ἑορτη - festival
ἐπιστολη - letter (correspondence)
θυσια - offering, sacrifice
κωμη - village
μαχαιρα - sword
νεφελη - cloud
παρουσια - presence, coming
περιτομη - circumcision
πορνεια - sexual immorality
προσευχη - prayer
ὑπομονη - patience
φυλη - tribe, nation
χηρα - widow
χωρα - country(side)

Numbers

τρεις - three (τρια with neuter nouns)
τεσσαρες - four (τεσσαρα with neuter nouns)
πεντε - five
ἑξ - six
ἑπτα - seven
ὀκτω - eight
ἐννεα - nine
δεκα - ten
δωδεκα - twelve
ἑκατον - one hundred
χιλιας - one thousand
πρωτος - first
δευτερος - second
τριτος - third

Exclamation

οὐαι - woe

Common words with irregular stem in present active

ἑωρακα - perfect active of ὁραω
ἀκηκοα - perfect active of ἀκουω

Lesson 17

The Subjunctive

‘The mode of doubtful assertion’, may or might. All three voices, but only in present and aorist.

Formation

Active and Aorist Passive endings are lengthened present indicative endings. -ω, -ῃς, -ῃ, ωμεν, ητε, ωσιν
Middle and Present Passive endings are lengthened middle indicative endings. -ωμαι, ῃ, ηται, ωμεθα, ησθα, ωνται

εἰμι - to be

ὠ, ᾐς, ᾐ, ὠμεν, ἠτε, ὠσιν

Seven subjunctive uses

The first two are the most common.

Indefinite clauses

Refers to person, place of time that is not definite: ἀν + subj = indefinite. Often particle translated ‘ever’. ὁς ἀν - whoever, ὁπου ἀν - wherever, ὁταν - whenever. Sometimes ἐαν used.

Purpose clauses

ἱνα + subj = purpose. Purpose can be translated, ‘in order that they might’, ‘to ...’, ‘in order to’, ‘so that they might’. Occasionally ὁπως used.

Exhortations (hortatory subjunctive)

1st plural subj = ‘let us’

Deliberation (deliberative subjunctive)

1st person subj = deliberation (what should I do?, where should we go?)

Prohibitions

Negative commands are μη + present imperative for process, but μη + aorist subjunctive for default.

Emphatic negative future

οὐ μη + aorist subj = emphatic negative future (never, definitely). More emphatic than οὐ and future indicative.

Conditions

See Lesson 20

Vocab

ἀν - conditional particle
ἁχρι + gen - until
ἱνα + subj - in order that
ὁπως + subj - in order that
ὁταν + subj - whenever
ἐαν + subj - alternative for ἀν, or if

2nd declension nouns

ἀγρος - field
ἀνεμος - wind
διακονος - servant
ἐχθρος - enemy
ἡλιος - sun
οἰνος - wine

Verbs

ἀναιρεω - I take away, kill
κατηγορεω - I accuse
ὁμολογεω - I promise, confess

1st declension feminine nouns

γενεα - family, generation
γλωσσα - tongue, language
γραφη - writing, scripture
διαθηκη - covenant, last will and testamant
διακονια - service, ministry
ἐπαγγελια - promise
ἐπιθυμια - desire
θυρα - door
Ἰουδαια - Judea
μαρτυρια - testimony, witness
ὀργη - anger, wrath
σοφια - wisdom
σωτηρια - salvation
τιμη - price, value, honour
φυλακη - watch (guards), prison
χρεια - need

An adjective that functions as a noun

πτωχος - poor

Lesson 18

Using verbs

δυναμαι, καθημαι, κειμαι and οἰδα

These are states arising from past situations. So, they use Perfect and Pluperfect endings for Present and Imperfect respectively.

For their participles use perfect endings; infinitive, use present endings without initial vowel. δυναμαι (inf δυνασθαι, mp δυναμενος); οἰδα (inf εἰδεναι, mp εἰδως)

Uses of the infinitive

After certain verbs

δει, δυναμαι etc.

(Second) subject of an infinitive

Subject of an infinitive is in accusative, even if second subject (except ἐξεστι, dative). θελω τον ἀγγελον ἀπελθειν. I want the messenger to depart.

Result clauses (ὡστε)

Second subject in accusative. Translate ‘so (that)’ or ‘and’.

Purpose

Infinitive or ἰνα + subj.

Articular infinitive

Place neuter singular article before verb. το ἐσθιειν - (the activity/fact of) eating. Often takes preposition

  • δια (because of)
    • δια το μη αἰτεισθαι ὑμας – because you do not ask.
    • εις or προς (with a view to / aiming at / leading to)
    • μετα (after)
    • προ (before)
    • ἐν (during/while)
      • ἐν τῳ σπειρειν – as he sowed.

    Third person imperatives

    They mean ‘Let him/her/it/them ...’ (‘he/she/it/they should’, not ‘allow them to’). Endings τω/θω (s), -τωσαν/-θωσαν (pl).
    Present ActiveAorist ActivePresent Middle/ PassiveAorist MiddleAorist Passive
    Sλυετωλυσατωῥυεσθωῥυσασθωλυθητω
    Plλυετωσανλυσατωσανῥυεσθωσανῥυσασθωσανλυθητωσαν

    If someone has ears to hear, let him hear/he should hear (Mark 4.23)

    Principal parts

    Lists Morphology table.

    Aspect and Time in Tenses

    Occasionally time is ignored, even in Aorist.

    Vocab

    Adjectives

    ἀξιος - worthy
    δεξιος - right (hand)
    δυνατος - powerful, capable, able
    ἐλευθερος - free
    ἐσχατος - last, least
    ἱκανος - sufficient
    ἰσχυρος - strong
    λευκος - white, bright
    λοιπος - remaining
    μεσος - middle
    νεος - new, young
    ὀλιγος - small, little (pl few)
    πλουσιος - rich
    πνευματικος - spiritual
    φιλος - loved, friendly, friend

    Nouns

    μαρτυς, μαρτυρος, ὁ - witness
    μισθος - pay, wages
    σταυρος - cross

    Verbs

    αὐξανω - I grow
    καθαριζω - I make/declare clean
    καθιζω - I cause to sit down
    δυναμαι - I can, I am able
    καθημαι - I sit (down)
    κειμαι - I lie, recline
    οἰδα - I know
    παρειμι - I am present

    Other

    ὡστε + inf - with the result that

    α prefix for negation

    ἀδικεω - I do wrong
    ἀδικια - wrongdoing
    καθαρος - clean, pure
    ἀκαθαρτος - impure, unclean
    ἀπιστος - unbelieving, faithless

    Lesson 19

    -μι, -αω and -οω verbs

    -μι verbs

    Present stem is longer than verbal stem by reduplication. Form by repeating first consonant (or add h sound for vowels or σ), then add ι. θε →τιθε, στα → ἱστα

    Parsing

    Present stemPresent
    Present stem + augmentImperfect
    Verbal stem + σ suffixFut Ind (or 1st Aorist other mood)
    Verbal stem + aug + σ suffix1st Aorist Active Indicative
    Verbal stem + augment2nd Aorist Active Indicative
    Verbal stem2nd Aorist other mood
    Verbal stem + θAorist Passive (+ aug in Indicative)
    Verbal stem + θησFuture Passive
    Verbal stem reduplicatedPerfect
    * When two θ follow, the first becomes τ
    διδωμι and τιθημι use 1st Aorist in Indicative, but 2nd in other moods.
    Indicative singular lengthens final vowel. στα -> στη

    ἱστημι is transitive, unless Perfect Active, Future Middle, 2nd Aorist Active or Aorist Passive.

    -αω and -οω verbs (like -εω)

    Contractions

    α + ε/η → α
    α + ο/ω/ου → ω
    α + any ι → ᾳ
    α → η (in other tenses)

    ο + short vowel or ου → ου
    ο + long vowel → ω
    ο + any ι → οι
    ο → ω (in other tenses)

    Note

    Present infinitive is -εν not -ειν
    Imperfect active 3s drops final (ν)
    Some -εω verbs keep ε in other tenses

    Vocab

    -μι

    διδωμι - I give
    ἀποδιδωμι - I give away
    παραδιδωμι - I hand over, I entrust
    ἱστημι - I cause to stand (transitive), stand (intransitive)
    ἀνιστημι - I raise
    παριστημι - I place beside
    τιθημι - I put, place
    ἐπιτιθημι - I put, place upon
    ἀφιημι - I leave, forgive, dismiss
    συνιημι - I understand
    ἀπολλυμι - I ruin, destroy (middle I perish)
    δεικνυμι - I point out, show
    πιμπλημι - I fulfil
    φημι - I say

    -αω

    ἀγαπαω - I love
    γενναω - I bear (beget) (Passive - I am born)
    διψαω - I thirst (for)
    ἐρωταω + acc + acc - I ask + double acc.
    ἐπερωταω + acc + acc - I ask (for) + double acc.
    ζαω - I live (contracts to η)
    ἰαομαι - I heal (α remains in other tenses)
    κοπιαω - I labour
    νικαω - I overcome
    πειναω - I hunger
    πλαναω - I deceive, lead astray
    τιμαω - I honour, value
    ἐπιτιμαω - I rebuke

    -οω

    δικαιοω - I justify
    πληροω - I fulfil, fill, complete
    σταυροω - I crucify
    τελειοω - I accomplish, complete
    φανεροω - I reveal, make known

    Lesson 20

    Final pieces

    Conditions

    Basic conditional (εἰ + Inf)

    Basic conditional sentence have two parts, protasis ‘if’ and apodosis ‘then’.

    Indefinite conditions (ἐαν + Subj)

    About the future or addressing a generic (or hypothetical) situation without a particular occasion in mind.

    Contrary to fact (ἀν)

    ἀν placed in apodosis means speaker thinks the protasis is false. We use ‘would’ in English apodosis ('if you liked Greek, you would have learnt it'). Unusually for indicative, negative uses μη. Uses imperfect and aorist for present and past time.

    The Genitive absolute

    Is a noun with agreeing participle separated off (Latin ab-solutus) from sentence. They normally occur at the beginning of the sentence. Often give background information of time or circumstances. ‘Evening having happened, he comes with the twelve’ Mark 14.17. Translated, when, while, having...

    Periphrastics

    Akin to ‘I was going’, using auxiliary word was.

    Present/Imperfect/Future of εἰμι + present participle

    Perfect/Pluperfect/Future Perfect of εἰμι + perfect participle.

    In Classical Greek, periphrastic construction emphasised continuous force of participle. Probably not used as such in Koine Greek.

    Comparison

    You can form adverbs from any adjective and from this the comparative and superlative. Remember adjectives decline (ch 5), adverbs don't. -ως endings are adverbs.

    Formation

    If last vowel of stem is short becomes ω, else if long or diphthong becomes ο.
    • Comparative -τερ-
    • Superlative -τατ-
    Adjective: σοφος → σοφωτερος → σοφωτατος (wise, wiser (more wise), wisest (most/very wise))
    Adverb: σοφως → σοφωτερον → σοφωτατα (wisely, more wisely, most/very wisely)

    Many are irregular

    κακος → ζειπων (bad → worse)

    The Optative

    Sixth mood, less certain than the Subjunctive [hesitancy]. Used for wishes and indirect questions. Was used especially in Classical Greek, rarely in Koine, unless trying to imitate Classical Greek such as in Luke. Formed like Subjunctive, but rather than η or ω had diphthong οι or αι.

    Vocab

    Adverbs, comparatives and superlatives

    ἀληθως - truly
    ἐλαχιστος - smallest
    εὐ - well
    κρεισσων - better

    μαλιστα - most of all
    μαλλον - more, rather
    μικρον - a little, a short time
    μικρος - small
    χειρων - worse

    Nouns

    ζῳον - living thing
    θυσιαστηριον - altar
    ποιμην, ποιμενος, ὁ - shepherd

    Verbs

    θεαομαι - I see, look at
    καυχαομαι - I boast
    μιμνῃσκομαι + gen - I remember
    νιπτω - I wash

    Principal Parts

    Principal Parts

    PresentFutureAorist ActivePerfect ActivePerfect PassiveAorist Passive
    λύωλύσωἔλυσαλέλυκαλέλυμαιἐλύθην
    φιλέωφιλήσωἐφίλησαπεφίληκαπεφίλημαιἐφιλήθην
    τιμάωτιμήσωἐτίμησατετίμηκατετίμημαιἐτιμήθην
    πληρόωπληρώσωἐπλήρωσαπεπλήρωκαπεπλήρωμαιἐπληρώθην
    κηρύσσωκηρύξωἐκήρυξακεκήρυχακεκήρυγμαιἐκηρύχθην
    πράσσωπράξωἔπραξαπέπραχαπέπραγμαιἐπράχθην
    ἀγγἐλλωἀγγελεωἤγγειλαἤγγελκαἤγελμαιἠκγγέλην
    ἄγωἄξωἤγαγονἦχαἤγμαιἤχθην
    αἴρωἀρεωἦραἦρκαἦρμαιἤρθην
    ἀκούωἀκούσωἤκουσαἀκήκοαἤκουσμαιἠκούσθην
    ἀνοίγωἀνοίξωἀνέωξαἀνλεωγαάνέωγμαιάνεώχθην
    ἁμαρτάνωἁμαρτήσωἥμαρτονἡμάρτηκαἡμάρτημαιἡμαρτήθην
    -βαίνω-βήσομαι-έβην-βέβηκα
    βάλλωβαλεωἔβαλονβέβληκαβέβλημαιἐβλήθην
    γίνομαιγενήσομαιἐγενόμηνγέγοναγεγένημαιἐγενήθην
    γινώσκωγνώσομαιἔγνωνἔγνωκαἔγνωσμαιἐγνώσθην
    γράφωγράψωἔγραψαγέγραφαγέγραμμαιἐγράφην
    δέχομαιδέξομαιἐδεξάμηνδέδεγμαιἐδέχθην
    ἐγείρωἐγερεωἤγειραἐγήγερκαἐγήγερμαιἠγέρθην
    εὑρίσκωεὑρήσωεὗρονεὕρηκαεὕρημαιεὑρέθην
    θέλωθελήσωἠθέλησαἠθέληκαἐθελήθην
    -θνῄσκω-θανοῦμαι-έθανον-τέθνηκα
    καλέωκαλέσωἐκάλεσακέκληκακέκλημαιἐκλήθην
    κράζωκράξωἔκραξακέκραγα
    κρίνωκρινεωἔκρινακέκρικακέκριμαιἐκρίθην
    λαμβάνωλήμψομαιἔλαβονεἴληφαεἴλημμαιἐλήμφθην
    λείπωλείψωἔλιπονλέλοιπαλέλειμμαιἐλείφθην
    μανθάνωμαθήσομαιἔμαθονμεμάθηκα
    πάσχωπασχονἔπαθονπέπονθα
    πείθωπείσωἔπεισαπέποιθαπέπεισμαιἐπείσθην
    πίνωπίομαιἔπιονπέπωκαπέπομαιἐπόθην
    πίπτωπεσοῦμαιἔπεσονπέπτωκα
    σπείρωσπερεωἔσπειραἔσπαρκαἔσπαρμαιἐσπάρην
    -στέλλω-στελεω-έστειλα-έσταλκα-έσταλμαι-εστάλην
    σῴζωσώσωἔσωσασέσωκασέσω/σμαιἐσώθην
    φεύγωφεύξομαιἔφυγονπέφευγα
    ἔρχομαιἐλεύσομαιἦλθονἐλήλυθα
    ἐσθίωφάγομαιἔφαγονἐδήδοκαἐδήδεσμαι
    ἔχωἕξωἔσχονἔσχηκαἔσχημαι
    λέγωἐρεωεἶπονεἴρηκαεἴρημαιἐρρέθην
    ὁράωὄψομαιεἶδονἑώρακαἐώραμαιὤφθην
    φέρωοἴσωἤνεγκαἐνήνοχαἐνήνεκμαιἠνέχθην
    τίθημιθήσωἔθηκατέθεικατέθειμαιἐτέθην
    δίδωμιδώσωἔδωκαδέδωκαδέδομαιἐδόθην
    ἵστημιστήσωἔστησαἕστηκαἔστημαιἐστάθην
    ἀφίημιἀφήσωἀφῆκαἀφεῖκαἀφέωμαιἀφέθην
    ἀπόλλυμιἀπολέσωἀπώλεσαἀπόλωλα
    δείκνυμιδείξωἔδειξαδέδειχαδέδειγμαιἐδείχθην

    Exercises


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