Hebrew Mon 30 Jan 17   (Updated Thu 7 May 20)

Table of contents

Lesson 1

Outline

Alphabet

This lesson introduces the Hebrew alphabet and pronunciation.

LetterCalledPronunciationTranslit.
אʾālêfsilentʾ
בּ בbêt vêtb vb ḇ
גּ גgîmelgg ḡ
דּ דdāletdd ḏ
הhē’h (hay)h
וwāwww
זzayinzz
חḥêtBach or (c)h-et
טṭêtt
יyôdyy
כּ ך כkafkeep ch as in Bachk ḵ
לlāmedll
ם מmēmmm
ן נ nûnnn
סsāmek(h)ss
עʿayinsilent or eye-inʿ
פּ ף פpē’p (pay) f (fay)p p̄
ץ צ ṣādêts as in nets
קqôfkeepq
רrês̆(h)rr
שׂ שׁśîn s̆(h)înset (seen) sh as in sheenś š
תּ תtāwtt ṯ

Dagesh Lene

Six consonants may have a dagesh lene in them. A dagesh lene means the consonant is pronounced harder. In Modern Hebrew, three are pronounced differently (פּ, כּ, בּ). A helpful mnemonic to remember the six consonants is BeGaD KePaT.

Gutturals

Gutturals were originally pronounced from the throat. They cannot have a dagesh lene in them. The Gutturals are ר, ע, ח, ה, א.

Lesson 2

Outline

Vowels & half-vowels

This lesson introduces vowels. They are written as pointers around the consonants.

Table of full Vowels

Vowel letters were added around 6thC BC, they are known as unchangeable long vowels, or historically long vowels. They are י ו and sometimes ה א. They are known as the matres lectionis, mother of reading in Latin.

NameSignPositionSoundIllustration
qāmeṣ (קָמַץ)ָאָfather
pataḥ (c.f. פָּתַח)ַאַafather????
ṣērêֵאֵthey
ṣērê-yôdי ֵאֵיthey
sĕgôlֶאֶemet
ḥîreq-yôdי ִאִיee machine
ḥîreqִאִisit
ḥôlemֹאֹrow
ḥôlem-wāwוֹאוֹnow
qāmeṣ-ḥāṭûpָ̄אָohot
šûreqוּאוּrule
qibbûṣֻאֻupull
[הַי ai dipthong like eye]

Half-vowels

ḥāṭēp means hurried. The compound shewas are all vocal.

NameSignPositionSoundIllustration
šĕwā’ְאְbaton, believe, buffet
ḥāṭēp̄-pataḥֲאֲabout
ḥāṭēp̄-sěgôlֱאֱelope
ḥāṭēp̄-qāmeṣֳאֳoccasion

Lesson 3

Outline

Maqqēf, אֵת, dagesh forte, silent shewa

Maqqēp̄

A short horizontal stroke that joins words. Vowels are often shortened.

Sign of direct object, אֵת

Shows the person or thing upon which the verb is taking place [not used with prepositions]. The sign is אֵת. With a maqqēp̄, this is shortened to אֶת־. [This is only used before definite article or objects, (such as include pronominal suffix, my king)]

Dagesh forte

A dagesh forte is a dot placed in a letter, like a dagesh lene. However, it serves another purpose. It doubles the consonant. The guttural (ר, ע, ח, ה, א) cannot have a dagesh forte.

  • A dot in any letter other than a dagesh lene is a dagesh forte
  • A BeGaT KePaT letter is a dagesh lene when not preceded by a vowel sound [Thus, new syllables after long vowel have no dagesh]
  • A BeGaT KePaT letter is a dagesh forte when preceded by a vowel sound (full or half)
[After vowel, dagesh not in BGDKPT letters, unless disjunctive accent]

Silent Shewa

A silent shewa is written like a vocal shewa(ְ ). However, whereas a vocal shewa begins syllables, a silent shewa ends them.

When two shewas are adjacent, the first will be silent, the second vocal.

Final kaf often has a raised silent shewa( ךְ )

Vocab

אָב - father, ancestor
אָח - brother
אָחוֹת - (f) sister
אִישׁ - man
אִשָּׁה - (f) woman
אֵם - (f) mother
אָדָם - man, humankind
אֱלֹהִים - God
בֵּן - son
בַּת - (f) daughter
יִשְׂרָאֵל - Israel
לֵב - heart
עִיר - (f) city
עוֹף - bird(s)
עַם - people
קוֹל - voice
רֹאשׁ - head
שֵׁם - name

Lesson 4

Outline

Accents, Meteg, Weak Letters and Syllables

Accents

Accents serve a threefold purpose:

  1. Mark the tone syllable (accented syllable) - if not the last syllable. Mûnaḥ ( ֣ ).
  2. Used in synagogue chanting
  3. Punctuation marks:
    1. Disjunctive accents. There are two major disjunctive accents that are placed on accented syllable. Words with these are said to be ‘in pause’. The pause may lengthen the vowels.
      1. ʾatnāḥ ( ֑  ) marks the end of the first ‘half’ of the verse
      2. sillûq ( ֽ ) marks the end of sentence before the sôp̱ pāssûq ( ׃ )
    2. Conjunctive accents.

Meteg

Meteg is a secondary accent. It looks like a sillûq ( ֽ ), but is found on any word.

  1. Meteg marks long vowels that need proper stressing.
  2. They mark short vowels before compound shewas.
  3. They can stand (with long or short vowels) before vocal shewas.
  4. They can be used with unchangeable long vowels before a maqqēp̄.

Meteg's occasionally are placed to the right of the vowel.

Weak Letters

ה and א can become quiescent (silent). א is silent if in the middle or end of a word. ה is silent when it stands as the consonant that ends the word. In such cases, they don't close a syllable.

Maqqîq

Dot inserted into final ה to show (הּ) it's a consonant, not quiescent.

Syllables

A syllable is either open (consonant-vowel) or closed (consonant-vowel-consonant). Word's starting וּ is rare exception.

This table summarises the length of vowels in syllables.
UnaccentedAccented
OpenLongGenerally long
ClosedShortLong or short
Shewa is...when it falls...
Vocal and in an open syllable
  • at the start of a word or syllable
  • after a long vowel
  • after a silent shewa
Silent and closes a syllable
  • after a short vowel
  • at the end of a word

Lesson 5

Outline

Gutturals and Article

This lesson explains gutturals and introduces the definite article.

Gutturals

Gutturals have special rules.

Gutturals cannot be doubled: compensatory lengthening of vowels

They reject a dagesh forte.
  1. Instead (for ר ע א) the preceding vowel is lengthened.
    1. a class ַ → ָ
    2. e/i class ִ → ֵ
    3. o/u class ֻ → ֹ
  2. For ה and ח a dagesh forte is assumed, but not shown.

Pataḥ furtive - Gutturals tend to take 'a' class vowels before them

A pataḥ furtive _ is inserted between an unchangeable long vowel and guttural. This only occurs at the end of a word and after a non 'a' class unchangeable long vowel. The sounds is a rushed a, it's not a vowel.

Gutturals usually take compound shewas

Usuallyֲ or אֱ. They don’t usually take simple shewas. Vowels before gutturals may change.

Definite article

No indefinite article. Definite articles don’t change for case, gender or number.

  1. Before non-gutturals use ּ הַ
  2. Before ה and ח use הַ
    1. Double by implication, 'virtually doubled'
  3. Before ר ,ע ,א use הָ
    1. Compensatory lengthening of vowel.
  4. Before חָ, unaccented הָ and unaccented עָ [and הֳ] use הֶ
  5. Before יְ and sometimes מְ use הַ
  6. A few (singular form) nouns change internally when prefixed with a definite article – vowel often lengthened to qāmeṣ
    1. הָאָ֣רֶץ → אֶ֣רֶץ
    2. הַר הָהָר
    3. עַם הָעָם
    4. גַּן הַגָּן
    5. פַּר הַפָּר
    6. חַג הֶחָג
    7. אֲרוֹן הָאָרוֹן

[Addendum

  • Definitive article on abstract nouns can be ignored. 'the gold' = gold.
  • Found on physical objects and people as well.
  • Definitive article can be vocative. [O King
]

Vocab

אוֹר - light
אֶ֣רֶץ - (f) earth
אֲשֶׁר - who, which, what
בַּ֣יִת - house
בְּרִית - (f) covenant
גַּן - garden
דָּבָר - word, thing
הַר - mountain
חַג - feast, festival
חֶ֣רֶב - (f) sword
חֹ֣שֶׁךְ - darkness
טוֹב - good
יָם - sea
מַ֣יִם - water
מֶ֣לֶךְ - king
רוּ ַח - (f) spirit, wind
שָׁלוֹם - peace
שָׁנָה - (f) year

Lesson 6

Outline

Prepositions with nouns and waw conjunction

Prepositions with nouns

Inseparable prepositions

Hebrew has few prepositions. Some are inseparable to the noun.
  • בְּ - in, by, with...
  • כְּ - as, like, according to...
  • לְ - to, for, at...
  1. Written with simple shewa before consonant with full vowel (except sometimes accented syllables).
  2. Written with ḥîreq before consonants with simple shewa. כִּבְרִית
    1. Except before יְ, becomes בִּי etc.
  3. Before compound shewas, takes their short vowel and often meteg. בֶּֽאֱמֶת
    1. Before א, sometimes compound dropped, sere added. לֵאלֹהִים
  4. Before article ה, drops consonant and takes vowel. לָאִישׁ
  5. Before accented syllables (especially monosyllable/tone and 'a' class), preposition often takes qames. [לָמַ֣יִם, לָרוּץ]
  6. [Common words with prepositions may vary, e.g. לֵאמֹר]

Unattached or independent prepositions

Some prepositions are unattached, such as אֵ֣צֶל beside, near.

מִן - from, out of

  1. Before nouns with definite article, normally appears in full and with maqqef. מִן־הָאָ֣רֶץ
  2. Before indefinite nouns without leading gutturals becomes ּ מִ. e.g., מִמֶּ֣לֶך.
    1. Except before יְ becomes מִי
  3. Before indefinite nouns with leading gutturals becomes מֵ, e.g., מֵאִישׁ
  4. מִן can be used for comparison (X than Y)

The waw conjunction

And is prefixed to its following word. Similar to inseparable prepositions.
  1. וְ before consonants with full vowel (except labials פּ, מ, בּ [and ו]), e.g, וְהָאָ֣רֶץ
  2. וּ before פּ, מ, בּ and simple shewa, e.g., וּבְרִית
    1. Except before יְ, yod replaced by וִי, so יְהִי becomes וִיהִי
    2. [BGDKPT letters drop dagesh after וּ]
  3. Before compound shewa, takes short vowel and often meteg. וֶֽאֱמֶת
  4. וָ before monosyllables or accented syllables. Often reflects close connection and same class. [So, learn stress on words]

Divine names

וֵאלֹהִים and וַֽיהוָה [Also with most prepositions, except מִן.]

Vocab

Prepositions

אַחֲרֵי - after, behind
אֶל - to, into, toward
בֵּין - between
לִפְנֵי - before, in the presence of
מִן - from, out of
עַד - until, unto
עִם - with
עַל - upon, above, about
תַּ֣חַת - under, instead of

Nouns and vocab

אֵין - there is not [אַ֣יִן]
בֹּ֣קֶר - morning
יָד - (f) hand
יוֹם - day
יֵשׁ - there is/are
לֹא - not
לַ֣יְלָה - night
מָקוֹם - place

עֵץ - tree
עֶ֣רֶב - evening
פְּרִי - fruit

Lesson 7

Outline

Nouns

Derivation

Nouns are either primitive (without known derivation), derived from verbs or derived from other nouns.

Gender

Hebrew has two genders, masculine and feminine. Gender cannot be determined absolutely from form. However, feminine nouns are easier to spot. (If not obvious, a noun is more commonly masculine.)

Feminine nouns

  1. Female persons or (female) animals
  2. Nouns ending in ה ָ
    1. Several nouns are feminised by adding this suffix (מַלְכָה) [Open syllables (often?) reduce at start of words]
  3. Nouns ending in ת
  4. Nouns that refer to parts of the body that exist in pairs are usually feminine

Number

Nouns come in three classes, singular, plural and dual. We've seen singular.

Nouns becoming plural often undergo internal changes [opening vowels shorten, נְבִיאִים, דְּבָרִים, לְבָבִים, but for unchangeable long vowels occurs later on שׁוֹפְתִים].

Feminine nouns formed by adding a suffix, have their suffix replaced with the plural form.

Masculine plural nouns

  • Often end ים ִ
    • A few end וֹת [such as אָבוֹת]

    Feminine plural nouns

    • Most end וֹת (this replaces ה ָ )
      • A few end ים ִ [such as נָשִׁים]

      Masculine and feminine plurals

      Some nouns have two endings
      • End with ים ִ and וֹת

      Dual Nouns

      These are things that occur in pairs, especially organs of the body '(a pair of) ears'. Possibly some exceptions such as water.
      1. End with יִם ַ֣
      2. [fp תַ֣יִם ָ ]

      Vocab

      אֲדָמָה - (f) ground, earth
      אֲדֹנָי - Lord (’ădō-nāy)
      יְהוָה - LORD (’ădō-nāy)
      בְּהֵמָה - (f) cattle
      בָּשָׂר - flesh
      בְּתוֹךְ - in the midst of
      גַּם - also
      דֶּ֣רֶךְ - (m + f) way
      יַבָּשָׁה - (f) dry ground
      כִּי - for, that, because
      כֹּל - all, every
      כֵּן - thus, so
      מְאֹד - very, exceedingly
      מִצְוָה - (f) commandment
      נֶ֣פֶשׁ - (f) soul, living being
      עָפָר - dust
      שָׂדֶה - field
      שָׁמַ֣יִם - heavens, sky

      Lesson 8

      Outline

      Adjectives

      Gender and number

      There are few adjectives in Hebrew.
      Adjectives’ genders match their noun’s gender and number.

      Formation

      They are formed by adding a suffix and possibly modifying the vowels.

      Suffix changes

      Even on irregular nouns:
      • Mas. plural adjectives end ים ִ
      • Feminine s. adjectives end ה ָ
      • Fem. plural adjectives end וֹת

      Masculine plural adjectives [and nouns] that are monosyllable

      • With unchangeable long vowels
        • Remain the same טוֹבִים
      • Which end in non-gutturals and have short vowels
        • Retain short vowel, but double final consonant חַיִּים
      • Which end in gutturals and have short vowels (see L.V)
        • Lengthen their short vowel מָרִים

      Masculine plural adjectives [and nouns?] that are bisyllabic

      All have a qāmeṣ in their first syllable. This is volatilised (reduced to vocal shewa).
      • If initial consonant is non-guttural
        • Reduce to vocal shewa זְקֵנִים
      • If initial consonant is guttural (L.V)
        • Reduce to compound shewa חֲזָקִים
      • קָטֹן is irregular. ḥôlem→ pataḥ and nûn doubled. קְטַנִּים
      • Bisyllabic words ending ה ֶ drop their endings יָפִים

      Attributive Adjectives

      • Usually stands after their noun it describes, unless to emphasise.
      • Must agree in gender, number and definiteness

      Predicative Adjectives

      • Usually stands before the noun it completes. Add ‘to be’ when translating.
      • Will agree with subject noun in gender and number, but won’t take the article.
      • Sometimes two predicative nouns used to describe one noun.

      Vocab

      גָּדוֹל or גָּדֹל - great, large
      זָקֵן - old (of persons)
      חָדָשׁ - new
      חָזָק - strong
      חַי - living
      חָכָם - wise
      יָפֶה - beautiful, fair, handsome
      יָשָׁר - straight, right, upright
      מַר - bitter
      קָדוֹשׁ or קָדֹשׁ - holy
      קָטֹן - small
      קָרוֹב or קָרֹב - near
      קָשֶׁה - hard, difficult
      רַב - many, much, great
      רָחוֹק or רָחֹק - far, distant
      רַע - evil, bad
      רָעָה - (f) (an) evil
      תָּמִים - perfect, complete, whole

      Lesson 9

      Outline

      Pronouns

      [Add emphasis in sentence]

      Independent personal pronouns

      Often in verbless sentences כִּי־עָפָר אַ֣תָּה - for you (are) dust.
      אֲנִי, אָנֹכִיI1cs
      אַתָּהyou2ms
      אַתְּyou2fs
      הוּאhe/it3ms
      הִיא *she/it3fs
      אֲנַ֣חְנוּ, נַ֣חְנוּ, אֲנוּwe1cp
      אַתֶּםyou2mp
      אַתֶּן, אַתֵּ֣נָהyou2fp
      הֵם, הֵ֣מָּהthey3mp
      הֵן, הֵ֣נָּהthey3fp
      * הִוא in Pentateuch

      Demonstrative pronouns

      This/these

      msזֶה
      fsזֹאת
      cpאֵ֣לֶּה

      That/those

      msהוּא
      fsהִיא
      mp(הֵ֣מָּה (הֵם
      fp(הֵ֣נָּה (הֵן

      Demonstrative pronouns used attributively

      Like adjectives, they may be used attributively and agree in gender, number and definiteness. Usually stands after adjectives (if used). [always definite]

      הָאָ֣רֶץ הַטּוֹבָה הַזֹּאת - this good land (Deut 4.22)

      Demonstrative pronouns used predicatively

      Like predicative adjectives, these pronouns don't take the article, but agree with the noun in gender and number. Usually stands before noun.

      אֵ֣לֶּה הַדְּבָרִים - These (are) the words (Deut 1.1)

      Vocab

      אֶ֣בֶן - (f) stone
      דּוֹר - generation
      יְרוּשָׁלַ֣יִם or יְרוּשָׁלַ֣םִ - Jerusalem
      כֹּה - thus
      לֶ֣חֶם - bread
      מִדְבָּר - wilderness, desert
      מָה - What?
      מִי - Who?
      מִשְׁפָּט - judgement, justice
      משֶׁה - Moses
      נָבִיא - prophet
      נַ֣עַר - lad, youth
      נַעֲרָה - (f) maiden, young woman
      סֵ֣פֶר - book
      פֶּן - lest
      רֶ֣גֶל - (f) foot
      שֶׁ֣מֶן - oil, fat
      תּוֹרָה - (f) law, instruction

      Lesson 10

      Segholates and the Construct relationship

      Segholates

      These are bisyllabic words, with a, e or o vowels on first syllable, which itself is always accented. The second vowel often sĕgôl, unless middle or final consonant is guttural (נַ֣עַר).

      Forming segholate plurals that begin without a guttural

      • Masculine nouns ְ ָ ִים, e.g. בְּגָדִים - garments
      • Feminine nouns ְ ָ וֹת (usually), e.g. דְּלָתוֹת - doors

      Forming segholate plurals that begin with a guttural

      Similar, but gutturals take composite shewas. Masculine nouns, חֲסָדִים - mercies. Feminine nouns, אֲבָנִים - stones (unusual masculine ending in example).

      Dual endings

      קֶ֣רֶן → קַרְנַ֣יִם - (two) horns

      Construct Relationship

      Construct State

      Hebrew nouns have an absolute state (used in dictionaries) and a construct state. Construct states shorten the absolute state.

      Construct relationship

      The joining together of two or more nouns within a sentence. Juxtaposed or with a Maqqēp̄. They express genitival relationships.

      They are pronounced together, with emphasis falling on the final noun. This changes syllable stress. Long closed unaccented vowels are shortened; long open, volatised.

      Formation of Construct Plural Nouns

      Changes to Masculine plural

      Endings change, and open long vowels are usually volatised.
      ים ִ to י ֵ
      בָּנִים →בְּנֵי - sons of

      Volatisation

      If volatilisation results in two vocal shewas at beginning of construct, the first vowel is raised to a full vowel. N.b. unchangable long vowels remain unchanged.
      אֲנָשִׁים → אַנְשֵׁי - men of

      Dual construct

      Same as changes to masculine plural י ֵ

      Feminine plural

      Retains וֹת ending. Still volatises open long vowels.

      Changes in forming singular construct nouns

      These are far more complicated than plural changes, to be certain requires a dictionary.
      1. Monosyllabic nouns with unchangeably long vowels have same form. יוֹם - day of. Plural may be irregular.
      2. Monosyllabic nouns with short vowel have same form in singular. עַם - people of.
      3. Monosyllabic nouns with changeably long vowels usually shorten them. בֶּן
      4. אָב and אָח are irregular. אֲבִי and אֲחִי
      5. Bisyllabic nouns with the first open and second closed reduce first vowel to vocal shewa and shorten second (except unchangeably long). דְּבַר
      6. Bisyllabic nouns with both closed syllables will shorten long vowel at end.מִדְבַּר
      7. Segholates remain the same
      8. Feminine nouns ending in ה ָ change to ת ַ (plus volatise) e.g. שְׁנַת
      9. Nouns like בַּ֣יִת become בֵּית [diphthongs י ַ and ו ָ ]
        1. E.g. עַ֫יִן → עֵינ
        2. [Also מָ֣וֶת becomes מוֹת; C.f. תָּ֣וֶךְ]
      10. [Nouns ending ה ֶ have cons ה ֵ ]

      No definite articles

      Construct state nouns never take the definite article. When translating follow the definiteness of the absolute noun. [Names are always definite, so construct will take a definite article]. יוֹם יְהוָה - the day of the LORD, יוֹם חֹ֣שֶׁךְ - a day of darkness.

      Nothing comes between nouns in construct relationship

      Use context to determine adjective's noun. בֶּן־הָאִשָּׁה הַזֹּאת - the son of this woman. [סוּסַת הַמֶּ֣לֶךְ הַטוֹבָה – the good mare of the king]

      Meanings of construct relationship

      1. Location or origin of person of thing
      2. Further description or identification of place or thing
      3. Most frequently show possession or ownership

      Vocab

      אֹ֣הֶל - tent
      אֱמֶת - (f) truth
      אֵשׁ - (f) fire
      דָּם - blood
      זָהָב - gold
      חַיָּה - (f) living thing, animal
      חָכְמָה - (f) wisdom
      חֶ֣סֶד - goodness, kindness
      יַ֣יִן - wine
      כּוֹכָב - star
      כֶּ֣סֶף - silver
      מַלְכָּה - (f) queen
      מִצְרַ֣יִם - Egypt
      סוּס - horse
      עֵת - (f) time
      רֵעַ - friend
      פֶּה - mouth
      תְּהוֹם - (f) great deep, abyss

      Lesson 11

      Pronominal suffixes and nouns

      Pronominal suffixes for prepositions

      For inseparable prepositions בְּ and לְ

      3msוֹhim3mpהֶם ָthem
      3fsהּ ָher3fpהֶן ָthem
      2msךָ ְyou2mpכֶם ָyou
      2fsךְ ָyou2fpכֶן ָyou
      1csי ִme1cpנוּ ָ֣us

      כְּ is irregular (כָּמ֣וֹנִי 1cs, כָּמ֣וֹךָ 2ms, כָּמוֹךְ2fs , כָּמ֣וֹהוּ3ms , כָּמ֣וֹהָ3fs , כָּמ֣וֹנוּ1cp, כָּכֶם2mp , כָּכֶן2fp , כָּהֶם3mp , כָּהֶן3fp )

      Prepositions that take a dagesh forte

      These also have some irregular endings.

      • אֵת - with (not direct object). This like some prepositions takes a dagesh forte (אִתּוֹ 3ms…)
      • לְבַד - alone, by oneself, by itself (lit. in separation) (לְבַדִּי 1cs…)
      • עִם - with ( עִמִּי, also עִמָּדִי 1cs…)

      מִן – irregular

      • מִן - from, away from, more than. Duplicates מִן־מִן־נִי, but not always (מִמֶּ֣נִּי 1cs, מִמְּךָ 2ms ... מִמֶּ֣נּוּ 3ms/1cp... מִכֶּם 2mp, מֵהֶם 3mp)

      Prepositions with the same pronominal suffixes as plural nouns

      • לִפְנֵי becomes לְפָנַי 1cs (before me, lit. to the face of)…
        • Opening vowel volatised
      • אֶל and עַל (and אַחֲרֵי)
        • Long vowel in first syllable
        • Volatised before heavy suffix אֲלֵיכֶם (2/3p)
        • אֶל becomes אֵלַי
        • עַל becomes עָלָין

      Particles – Slightly irregular

      • אֵת - sign of direct object.
        • No dagesh (c.f. אֵת – with). אֹתוֹ (his)
        • no הֶ in 3p אֹתָם
        • 2p volatises אֶתְכֶם
      • הִנֵּה ,הֵן - Behold
        • הִנֶּ֣נִּי or הִנְנִי (1cs);הִנְּךָ (2ms)

      Pronominal suffixes for nouns

      Added to nouns in the construct state. Always definite, despite no article, so adjectives will have article. [May volatise vowels. דְּבַרוֹ and דְּבַרְכֶם
      Heavy suffixes (3mp, 3fp, 2mp, 2fp?) leads to further vowel reduction.
      Check accents, Week 3.D
      ]

      Singular nouns

      3msוֹhis3mpם ָtheir
      3fsהּ ָher3fpן ָtheir
      2msךָ ְyour2mpכֶם ְyour
      2fsךְ ֵyour2fpכֶן ְyour
      1csי ִmy1cpנוּ ֵ֣our
      [Irregular sometimes הֵם ָ s3mp and הֵן ָ s3mf
      and 3ms ה ֹ
      ]

      Plural nouns

      SuffixSuffix
      3msיו ָhis3mpיהֶם ֵtheir
      3fsיהָ ֶ֣her3fpיהֶן ֵtheir
      2msיךָ ֶ֣your2mpיכֶם ֵyour
      2fsיִךְ ַ֣your2fpיכֶן ֵyour
      1csי ַmy1cpינוּ ֵ֣our

      Irregular

      Several nouns show irregularies with pronominal suffixes.
      אָבִי – my father
      אָחִי – my brother
      [בֵּיִתְךָ]
      יָד remains יָד

      Vocab

      אָהַב - he loved
      אָמַר - he said
      בָּרָא - he created
      הָיָה - he was, became
      הָלַךְ - he walked, went
      יָדַע - he knew
      יַחְדָּו - together
      יֶ֣לֶד - child
      כָּבוֹד - glory, honour
      תֵּבָה - (f) ark
      עוֹד - again, yet, still
      עַל־פְּנֵי - over, above
      עַתָּה - now
      פֹּה - here
      צְבָאוֹת - hosts, armies
      שַׁבָּת - (m&f) Sabbath
      שָׁם - there
      שְׁנֵיהֶם - the two of them

      Lesson 12

      Verbs

      General overview of verbs

      Qal stem

      The simple active stem of a verb is the third declension masculine, or Qal. The Qal stem is listed in dictionaries. It normally has three consonants and two vowels.

      The first syllable is open with a qames, the second is accented, closed and with a patah. Unless it ends with א or ה, in which case, it's open and has a qamas. אָכַל , נָשָׂא

      Stative verbs

      Stative verbs may have exceptions. These describe a condition or state of being (he was great/holy/old, lie). These may contain patah, sere or holem as second vowel, זָקֵן

      Monosyllable verbs

      Monosyllabic verbs, have yod or waw in middle, which have contracted to form vowels. Called hollow or middle vowels. Listed with Qal infinitive in Lexicons. בּוֹא, שִׂים, מוּת. Some didn't contract, so middle yod etc. function as consonant. הָיָה

      Strong and weak verbs

      Verbs are either strong or weak. Weak means irregular.

      Strong verbs have three consonants in Qal perfect 3ms. No consonants are gutturals (except sometimes ר). Doesn't begin with י, ו, נ. Doesn't have identical second and third consonants.

      Weak verbs fall into ten groups.

      לעַפָּParadigm verb
      1דמַעָPe Guttural
      2לאַשָׁ‛Ayin Guttural
      3חלַשָׁLamed Guttural
      4לכַאָPe ’Alêf
      5אצָמָLamed ’Alêf
      6הנָבָּLamed He
      7לפַנָPe Nun
      8ב םוּ ישׁ שִׂ‛Ayin waw/ ‛Ayin yod
      9בשַׁיָPe waw/Pe yod
      10בבַסָDouble ‛ayin

      Doubly weak verbs

      Weak verbs may have multiple weak consonants, thus exhibiting peculiarities of more than one weak class. הָלַל

      Time tense

      Determined by context.

      Qal Perfect of Strong Verbs

      Verbs have two full sets of inflections: the perfect and imperfect. They indicate a complete and incomplete state of action respectively.

      The perfect suffixes for weak and strong verbs (in all stems) are:
      3msnonehe3cpוּthey
      3fsה ָshe
      2msתָּyou2mpתֶּםyou
      2fsתְּyou2fsתֶּןyou
      1csתִּיI1cpנוּwe

      Example with vocalisation changes

      3msשָׁמַרhe3cpשָֽׁמְרוּthey
      3fsשָֽׁמְרָהshe
      2msשָׁמַ֣רְתָּyou2mpשְׁמַרְתֶּםyou
      2fsשָׁמַרְתְּyou2fsשְׁמַרְתֶּןyou
      1csשָׁמַ֣רְתִּיI1cpשָׁמַ֣רְנוּwe

      Vocalic suffixes (those that begin with a vowel) draw accents to themselves, unless preceded by unchangeably long vowel. Volatises second vowel, and meteg added to first (as open long vowel before v.shewa).

      Silent shewas added before consonantal suffixes. תֶּם and תֶּן suffixes pull open long accents to themselves, but other suffixes aren't accented, so word is accented with meteg on the second syllable.

      [Ta-ti-nu (2ms, 1cs, 1cp) make second vowel accented.]

      The Meaning of the Perfect

      • A simple action completed in the past (aorist)
      • Past perfect. An action completed before a point of reference in the past. (Pluperfect)
      • In the present tense, as a verb of perception, attitude, disposition, or mental or physical state of being.
      • If prefixed with waw conjunction, usually indicates future tense.

      Agrees with person, gender and number.

      Can be joined with subject pronouns for emphasis. 'She gave to me from the tree'

      Word order in verbal sentences

      Sentences follows verb, subject then object. Unless emphasising the part of speech placed first.

      Vocab

      אוֹ - or
      אוֹת - sign
      אֵל - God
      הִנֵּה ,הֵן - behold
      זֶ֣רַע - seed
      חֲצִי - half
      לָקַח - he took
      מָלַךְ - he reigned, became king
      מָצָא - he found
      נָפַל - he fell
      עָבַד - he served
      עָלָה - he went up
      פָּקַד - he visited, appointed
      קָרָא - he called, announced, read
      שָׁכַב - he lay down
      שָׁלַח - he sent
      שָׁמַע - he heard, obeyed
      שָׁמַר - he kept

      Lesson 13

      Interrogative Sentences and Numerals

      Interrogative Sentences

      Closed questions

      Closed questions introduced with ה. (Is, do, am, shall [was])
      1. הֲ Before full vowel, non-guttural
      2. הַ Before full vowel, guttural
        1. Except, הֶ Before qames or qames-hatuf with guttural
      3. הַ Before vocal shewa

      אִם can introduce a question, and supposes a negative response. אִם־לֹא implies certainly (handbook, p105)

      Open questions

      מִי who? (people), מָה what? (things)

      מִי usually stands alone or מִי־

      מָה usually joined מַה־
      1. מַה־ Before non-gutturals
      2. מָה or מָה־ (occ מַה) before ר, [ה?], א
      3. מֶה or מֶה־ [before guttural with qamas != ] before ח or ע [or הָ]

      Interrogative adverbs

      אֵי - where?
      אַיֵּה - where? [only in nominal sentences?]
      אֵיפֹה - where?
      מֵאַ֣יִן - from where?
      אֵי־מִזֶּה - from where?
      אֵיךְ - how?
      אָ֣נָה, אָן - to what place?
      לָמָה) ,לָ֣מָּה) - why? to what purpose?
      מַדּוּעַ - why?

      Numerals

      1-10

      CardinalsOrdinals
      MasculineFeminineMasFem
      AbsConsAbsCons
      1אֶחָדאַחַדאַחַתאַחַת1stרִאשׁוֹןרִאשׁוֹנָה
      2שְׁנַ֣יִםשְׁנֵישְׁתַּ֣יִםשְׁתֵּי2ndשֵׁנִישֵׁנִית
      3שְׁלֹשָׁהשְׁלֹ֣שֶׁתשַָׁלוֹשׁשְׁלשׁ3rdשְׁלִישִׁישְׁלִישִׁית
      4אַרְבָּעָהאַרְבַּ֣עַתאַרְבַּעאַרְבַּע4thרְבִיעִירְבִיעִית
      5חֲמִשָּׁהחֲמֵ֣שֶׁתחָמֵשׁחֲמֵשׁ5thחֲמִישִׁיחֲמִישִׁית
      6שִׁשָּׁהשֵׁ֣שֶׁתשֵׁשׁשֵׁשׁ6thשִׁשִּׁישִׁשִּׁית
      7שִׁבְעָהשִׁבְעַתשֶׁ֣בַעשְׁבַע7thשְׁבִיעִישְׁבִיעִית
      8שְׁמֹנָהשְׁמֹנַתשְׁמֹנֶהשְׁמֹנֶה8thשְׁמִינִישְׁמִינִית
      9תִּשְׁעָהתִּשְׁעַתתֵּ֣שַׁעתְּשַׁע9thתְּשִׁיעִיתְּשִׁיעִית
      10עֲשָׂרָהעֲשֶׂ֣רֶתעֶ֣שֶׂרעֶ֣שֶׂר10thעֲשִׂירִיעֲשִׂירִית

      • One is an adjective.
      • 2-10 function as adjectives, but are nouns.
        • Absolute form stands before or after noun
        • Construct form must stand before noun.
      • 2 agrees in gender with noun it modifies. 3-10 take opposite gender (except ordinals), see table.
      • Absolute and construct are interchangeable.
      • 2-10 may have pronominal suffix (as nouns) in construct form
        • שְׁנֵיהֶם - the two of them.

      11-19

      • Unit placed before modified-ten: עָשָׁר Mas, עֶשְׂרֵה Fem
        • אַחַר עָשָׁר or feminine אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה - 11.
      • Usually accompanying nouns are in plural form
        • Except אִישׁ, יוֹם, שָׁנָה, נֶ֣פֶשׁ

      20-99

      עֶשְׂרִים - 20 (plural of ten).
      Adds וְ before unit. עֶשְׂרִים וְאֶחַד - 21.
      30-90, tens are plural of units 3-9
      שְׁלֹשִׁים - 30 , - 40אַרְבָּעִים...

      100-4000

      100 מֵאָה (always fem) מְאַת (const) מֵאוֹת (pl)
      200 מָאתַ֣יִם (dual - pair of hundreds)
      300 שְׁלֹשׁ מֶאוֹת (masc const)
      400 אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת (500-900 as above)
      1000 אֶ֣לֶף masc (plural אֲלָפִים)
      2000 אַלְפַּ֣יִם (dual)
      3000 שְׁלֹ֣שֶׁת אֲלָפִים (note fem const)
      4000 אַרְבַּ֣עַת אֲלָפִים
      (רִבּוֹת 10,000)

      Numeral values

      (10) אֹ (1), בֹ (2), גֹ, דֹ, הֹ, וֹ, זֹ, חֹ, טֹ, יֹ
      (15*) יֹאֹ (11), יֹבֹ, יֹגֹ, יֹדֹ, הֹיֹ
      יֹוֹ, יֹזֹ, יֹחֹ, יֹטֹ
      * reverse to avoid shorthand for יהוה
      כֹ - 20 כֹטֹ to כֹאֹ
      כֹיֹ - 30 (not עֹ as it was hapax) לֹטֹ to לֹאֹ
      מֹ - 40
      נֹ - 50
      סֹ - 60
      עֹ - 70
      פֹ - 80
      צֹ - 90
      קֹ - 100
      קֹיֹ - 110

      Vocab

      אָכַל - he ate
      גָּנַב - he stole
      דְּמוּת - (f) likeness, image
      דַּ֣עַת - (f) knowledge
      הַיּוֹם - today
      הֵיכָל - temple
      חֹ֣דֶשׁ - new moon, month
      חוֹמָה - (f) wall
      כָּתַב - he wrote
      לָכֵן - therefore
      מַלְכּוּת - kingdom
      נֶ֣גֶב - Negev, dry county, south
      נָתַן - he gave
      עָמַד - he stood
      עָשָׂה - he did, made
      צֹאן - flock, sheep
      צַדִּיק - righteous one
      צֶ֣לֶם - image, likeness

      Lesson 14

      Outline

      Verbs - Remaining Stems

      Remaining stems

      קַל - Qal (Simple Active)
      נִפְעַל - Nif‛al (Simple Passive or Reflexive)
      פִּעֵל - Pi‛el (Intensive Active or Causative)
      פֻּעַל - Pu‛al (Intensive Passive)
      הִתְפַּעֵל - Hitpa‛el (Reflexive)
      הִפְעִיל - Hif‛il (Causative Active)
      הָפְעַל - Hof‛al (Causative Passive)

      Meaning example

      • He ruled
      • He was ruled
      • He ruled (with force)
      • He was ruled (with force)
      • He ruled himself
      • He caused to rule
      • He was caused to rule

      נִפְעַל

      Usually simple passive, sometimes reflexive, only occasionally similar to Qal, where no Qal exists.

      פִּעֵל, פֻּעַל, הִתְפַּעֵל

      Double middle consonant. Some פִּעֵל and הִתְפַּעֵל verb forms are similar to Qal.

      • הִתְפַּעֵל
        • Before the sibilants (ס, צ, שׂ, שׁ, [ז once])
          • Switches the prefixed tāw and consonant, e.g. הִסְתַּתֵּר.
          • Before צ the letter ת becomes ט e.g. הִצְטַדֵּק.
        • Before ד, ט, ת
          • the prefixed ת becomes a dagesh forte, e.g., הִטַּמֵּא

      הִפְעִיל

      Causative: he caused to know, he brought out. Brackets indicate verb routes not normally in the Qal stem. Some require context to understand.

      הָפְעַל

      Straightforward.

      Remaining Perfects of Strong verb

      נִפְעַל

      3s has same vowel pattern as stem name, else add prefix to Qal stem. נִמְשַׁל - he was ruled, נמְשְׁלָה - she was ruled.

      פִּעֵל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and ḥîreq as first consonant throughout. [Middle consonant sometimes not doubled if followed by a shewa and is not a BeGaD KePaT letter. בִּקְשָׁה]

      פֻּעַל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and qibbûṣ as first consonant throughout.

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      3s same vowel pattern. Middle consonant doubled and pataḥ as first consonant (after prefix הִתְ) throughout.

      הִפְעִיל

      3s same vowel pattern. Prefix and shewa on first consonant. Only 3ms, 3fs and 3cp contain ḥîreq-yôd. הִמְשִׁ֣ילָה. (Unchangeably long vowel rejects volatisation).

      הָפְעַל

      3s same vowel pattern. Prefix and shewa on first consonant.

      Vocab

      אֶחָד - one
      אֵת - with
      [בּדל] - he separated, divided
      בָּנָה - he built
      [בּקשׁ] - he sought
      בַּרְזֶל - iron
      [דּבר] - (Pi‛el) he spoke
      זָכָר - male
      כֹּהֵן - priest
      כֶּ֣רֶם - vineyard
      כָּרַת - he cut, cut off
      מִין - species, kind
      מִלְחָמָה - (f) war, battle
      נְחֹ֣שֶׁת - copper, bronze
      נְקֵבָה - (f) female
      עָנָן - cloud
      פַּר - young bull
      קֶ֣רֶב - midst

      Lesson 15

      Outline

      Qal Imperfect of Strong Verb

      Formation

      Formed merging Qal infinitive (שְׁמֹר) with set of prefixes and suffixes
      3ms□□□יִ 3mpוּ□□□יִ
      3fs□□□ תִּ 3fpנָה□□□תִּ
      2ms□□□תִּ 2mpוּ□□□תִּ
      2fsי□□□ִ תִּ 2fsנָה□□□תִּ
      1cs□□□אֶ 1cp□□□נִ
      Sometimes, 3mp suffix is וּן

      Some stative verbs have patah, not holem as stem vowel in infinitive (שְׁכַב – to lie down).

      [2fp suffix can sometimes look like 3mp ?]

      The meaning of the imperfect

      • Describe a simple action in future time
      • Frequentative use. Express repeated, habitual or customary action, past, present or future. (Appears similar to continuous aspect: imperfect; present or future continuous)
      • (Subjunctive mood) Express actions contingent or dependent upon other factors. Translate with may, can, shall, might, should, could, would... May appear after conditional particles (אִם – if though,אוּלַי – perhaps, לְמַ֣עַן – in order that...), particles expressing end or purpose (פֶּן...), or interrogative pronouns or adverbs (מָה...).

      The Jussive and Cohortative

      Jussive, often third person (sometimes second) imperfect. Normal in strong, shortened in weak verbs. Used to express speakers desire, wish or command (may, let). נָא sometimes added for emphasis, entreaty, I pray.

      Cohortative, involves first person imperfects. Sometimes lengthened by ה ָ . Used to express the speaker's desire, intention, self-encouragement, or determination to perform a certain act.

      Vocab

      אַ֣יִל - ram
      בּוֹא - to come, go
      זָכַר - he remembered
      חָיָה - he lived, revived
      מָשַׁל - he ruled
      עֶ֣בֶד - servant, slave
      עָבַר - he passed over, through
      עוֹלָם - eternity
      קוּם - to arise, stand
      שָׂפָה - (f) lip, speech, edge
      שָׁאַל - he asked
      שָׁבַר - he broke in pieces
      שׁוּב - to turn, return
      שׁוֹפָר - ram’s horn, trumpet
      שָׁכַח - he forgot
      שָׁפַט - he judged, delivered
      תָּמִיד - continuously
      תְּפִלָּה - (f) prayer

      Lesson 16

      Outline

      Imperfects of remaining verb stems

      Prefixed vowels vary across stems. Suffixes and consonants remain the same. Prefix vowel is constant down forms, except 1cs אִ → אֶ, and אְ → אֲ. Vowel before נָה follows final vowel in form stem, except הִפְעִיל, and Qal is holem.

      נִפְעַל

      Prefix יִ. Consonant נְ is assumed into consonant with dagesh forte. Infinitive construct הִשָּׁמֵר, learn.
      • Sometimes describes a simple action in future time
      • Sometimes frequentative: repeated, habitual, or customary action
      • Sometimes, actions contingent upon other elements. Jussive and cohortative.

      פִּעֵל

      Prefix יְ. Inf. con. שַׁמֵּר, learn.
      • Sometimes describes a simple action in future time
      • Often frequentative: repeated, habitual, or customary action
      • May express actions contingent upon other elements. Jussive and cohortative.
      • [Sometimes the second root doesn't get dagesh forte.
      • Waw consecutive doesn't double in yod]

      פֻּעַל

      Prefix יְ. Inf con שֻׁמַּר.
      Passive of the פִּעֵל imperfect.

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      Inf con הִשְׁתַּמֵּר. Includes תְ
      Normally Reflexive, sometimes similar to Qal, simple action in active voice.
      • An action that is repeated, customary or habitual
      • Contingent upon other factors, including jussive and cohortatives.

      הִפְעִיל

      Inf con הַשְׁמִיר. Retains hiriq-yod, except before נָה becomes sere. Vocalic suffix does not shift accent.
      Normally causative of Qal impefect.
      • Sometimes simple action in future time
      • Often used to express repeated, habitual or customary actions

      הָפְעַל

      Inf con הָשְׁמַר. Passive of הִפְעִיל imperfect (‘he will be brought’, not ‘he will bring’). Fairly rare.

      The Waw consecutive

      Prefixed to imperfect verbs to express narrated past. Passage often start with perfect, then waw consecutives. Sequential ‘and then’ or consequential ‘and so’.

      ּ וַ unless guttural and sometimes יְ, e.g. וָאֶזְכֹּר – and I remembered. Irregular וַיֹּ֣אמֶר – and then he said.

      He-Directive (ה ָ )

      Indicates direction or motion toward. Can be added to common and proper nouns and adverbs of direction. Causes unpredicatable vowel and accent changes. ה is never accented. Nouns may have definite article.

      • Common nouns
        • אָ֣רְצָה – to the ground
        • הַבַּ֣יְתָה – to the house
        • הָהָ֣רָה – to the mountain
      • Proper nouns
        • מִצְרַ֣יְמָה – toward Egypt
        • בָּבֶ֣לָה – toward Babylon
        • יְרוּשָׁלַ֣יְמָה – toward Jerusalem
      • Directional adverbs
        • שָׁ֣מָּה – to there
        • אָנָה – to where?
        • צָפ֣וֹנָה – northward
        • תֵּימָ֣נָה – southward
        • קֶ֣דְמָה – eastward
        • יָ֣מָּה – westward
      [Some today debate this is actually dative]

      Conjunctive Dagesh Forte

      A dagesh forte is placed in the initial consonant of a word to link it to the preceding word. Always happens after זֶה ,מָה. And after word ending qames, qames-he, segol-he followed by a monosyllabic word.

      זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם – This is my name forever.

      Vocab

      בֶּ֣טֶן - (f) belly, body, womb
      [בּרך] - he blessed
      גָּאַל - he redeemed
      הָלַל - he praised
      חַטָּאת - (f) sin
      [לחם] - he fought
      לָמַד - he learned
      מָלֵא - he was full
      מָלַט - he escaped
      נָשָׂא - he lifted, carried
      סָתַר - he concealed
      עָוֹן - iniquity, guilt
      פֶּ֣שַׁע - rebellion, transgression
      קָבַר - he buried
      רָאָה - he saw
      רָקִיעַ - expanse, firmament
      שָׂרַף - he burned
      שָׁפַךְ - he poured out

      Lesson 17

      Outline

      Pronominal suffixes with verbs

      Pronominal suffixes with perfects

      When transitive verbs take pronominal object, pronominal suffix added to אֵת or transitive verb itself. ‘The LORD sent me.’

      That end in vowels

      3msהוּ, וhim3mpהֶם, םthem
      3fsהָher[/it]3fpןthem
      2msךָyou2mpכֶםyou
      2fsךְyou2fpכֶןyou
      1csנִיme1cpנוּus

      כֶם, כֶן, הֶם attract accents.

      Second root consonants have vocal shewa restored and lengthened (unless closed or unchangeably long). Initial opened vowel volatised due to two syllable distance from accent.

      שְׁמָר֣וּהוּthey kept himשְׁמָרוּםthey kept them
      שְׁמָר֣וּהָthey kept herשְׁמָרוּןthey kept them
      שְׁמָר֣וּךָthey kept youשְׁמָֽרוּכֶםthey kept you
      שְׁמָרוּךְthey kept youשְׁמָֽרוּכֶןthey kept you
      שְׁמָר֣וּנִיthey kept meשְׁמָר֣וּנוּthey kept us

      That end in consonants

      3msוֹ or הוּ ָ֣him3mpם ָthem
      3fsהּ ָher[/it]3fpן ָthem
      2msךָ ְyou, pausal ךָ ֶ֣ 2mpכֶם ְyou
      2fsךְ ֵ or ךְ ֶyou2fpכֶן ְyou
      1csנִי ַ֣me, pausal נִי ָ֣ 1cpנוּ ָ֣us

      Changes before perfect pronominal suffixes

      • 3fs verbs changed ה ָ ת ַ
      • 2fs verbs changed תְּ תִּי
      • 2m/fp verbs changed תֶּם and תֶּן תּוּ
      • [2ms ending תָּ becomes תַּ before נִי]
        • [2ms ending תָּ sometimes before 3ms suffix הוּ syncopates to תּוֹ]
      [[ Read Lambert (and JM §61) on energic nun with suffix:
      The tendancy (not absolute) is thus:
      1. After indicative imperfect -> וּ
      2. After jussive imperfect -> הוּ
      3. After waw consecutive -> הוּ
      4. After cohortative imperfect -> נוּ
      Gen 6.16: תְּכַלֶ֣נָּה, תַּֽעֲשֶֽׂהָ (both appear jussives)
      Belial adds after jussive, sometimes נוּ instead of הוּ
      But Lev 4.32 (יְבִיאֶֽנָּה) c.f. Ex 35.5 (יְבִיאֶ֕הָ) Both are jussives.
      Belial says after אַל it is always הוּ
      ]]

      Pronominal suffixes with imperfects

      That end in vowels

      Same as perfect vowel endings. The 2/3mp sureq is sometimes written defectively, but still long (and accented) יְשַׁלְּחֻ֣הוּ

      That end in consonants

      3msהוּ ֵ֣him3mpם ֵthem
      3fsהּ ָ or הָ ֶ֣her3fpן ֵthem
      2msךָ ְyou, pausal ךָ ֶ֣ 2mpכֶם ְyou
      2fsךְ ֵyou2fpכֶן ְyou
      1csנִי ֵ֣me1cpנוּ ֵ֣us

      2ms, 2m/fp create two adjacent vocal shewas, causing second to reduce to its short vowel. יִשְׁמָרְךָ. [If theme vowel is a or o will volatise; patah lengthened to qames]

      [In poetry suffix for 3mp is often מוֹ]

      [Paragogic Nun

      Hanging/Paragogic Nun are where a nun suffix is found on an unusual form such as 2fs. They are very rare, they may be found in major pauses. It slows down the sentence. So there’s more time to give verbal form. More common in Aramaic and Arabic. C.f 1 Sam 1.14]

      Extra nuns [energic nun]

      Sometimes additional nuns with shewa added and assimilated. Energic nun is not found in imperatives, jussives, wayyiqotal, these are found in clause-initial position. See 1 Sam 1.7

      3msנּוּ ֶ֣
      3fsנָּה ֶ֣
      2msךָּ ֶ֣
      1csנִּי ֶ֣1cpנּוּ ֶ֣

      Vocab

      בָּטַח - he trusted
      גָּדַל - he was (became) great
      דָּרַשׁ - he sought, inquired
      דֶּ֣שֶׁא - grass
      הָרַג - he killed, slew
      זָבַח - he sacrificed
      חָזַק - he was (became) strong
      חָשַׁב - he thought, devised, reckoned
      כָּבֵד - he was (became) heavy; (Pi‛el) he was honoured, glorified
      כָּנָף - (f) wing, skirt
      [כּפר] - (Pi‛el) he covered, made atonement
      לָבַשׁ - he put on, wore
      נַ֣חַל - torrent valley, wadi
      עָזַב - he abandoned, left, forsook
      קָרַב - he drew near, approached; (Hif‛il) offered
      רָדַף - he pursued, persecuted
      שֵׁ֣בֶט - rod, staff, sceptre, tribe
      שָׁכַן - he settled, dwelt

      Lesson 18

      Outline

      Imperatives

      Only occur in second person. Express positive commands, not prohibitions. Don’t appear in passive stems. Based on second person imperfects.

      קַל Imperative

      Drop preformatives from second person imperfects. Raise first double shewa to ḥîreq. שְׁמֹר 2ms, שִׁמְרִי 2fs, שִׁמְרוּ 2mp, 2fpשְׁמֹ֣רְנָה

      נִפְעַל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה

      פִּעֵל Imperative

      Drops preformatives. Reinsert dagesh lene when required. Drop dagesh forte in middle consonant before shewa (2fs, 2mp).

      הִתְפַּעֵל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה

      הִפְעִיל Imperative

      תּ prefix changed to ה. ḥîreq-yôd changed to ṣērê in 2ms.

      Pronominal Suffixes

      [Similar to imperfect, except ms and fp vocalisation is פָּקְד instead of פְּקֹד (Some exceptions: בָּחַן). Dagesh often not in meddle consonant]

      Imperatives with ה ָ suffix

      Adds emphasis, unlike cohortative (L15). [S Fassberg, A Shulmann argued directs attention towards speaker, like cohortative]

      Imperatives with נָא Particle

      Makes imperative more emphatic or urgent.

      Prohibiitions or negetive commands

      לֹא + imperfect = absolutely not
      אַל + jussive = mild prohibition

      Vocab

      יוֹמָם - daily
      יָצָא - he went out
      יָרֵא - he feared
      יָשַׁב - he sat, dwelt
      [ישׁע] - (Hif‛il) he saved, delivered
      מוּת - to die
      [נצל] - (Hif‛il) he delivered
      [ספר] - he counted; (Pi‛el) he told, related
      עָזַר - he helped
      עָנָה - he answered, replied
      [פּלל] - (Hitpa‛el) he prayed
      פָּרָה - he (it) was fruitful
      [צוה] - (Pi‛el) he commanded
      רָבָה - he became many, multiplied
      שִׂים - to put, place
      שָׂמַח - he rejoiced, was glad
      [שׁבע] - (Nif‛al) he swore
      [שׁלך] - (Hif‛il) he cast, threw

      Lesson 19

      Outline

      The Infinitive Construct and Absolute

      They are verbal nouns, have no person, gender or number. Can function as gerunds (verb functioning as noun, in English -ing).

      The Infinitive Construct

      Formation

      Identical to the 2ms imperative, except Hif‛il which retains ḥîreq-yôd. (e.g. מְשֹׁל in Qal ‘to rule’).

      Note, unlike imperatives, Pual and Hofal infinitives exist, but are rare.

      Learn, לִקְרַאת - to meet, encounter.

      Function

      1. Without prefixes or suffixes as in English.
      2. Often follows a preposition (see L6)
        1. בְּ temporal (when) or clausal (why) clause
        2. כְּ temporal (when, as, just as, as soon as) clause
        3. לְ introduces a purpose, result or temporal clause. (Most common preposition).
          1. Note, לֵאמֹר marks direct discourse similar to quotation mark.
        4. מִן denotes idea of withholding, restraining or refusing. Or comparative.
      3. With a pronominal suffix. Suffix may be subject or object. [Qal vocalisation פְּקֹד becomes פָּקְד]
      4. לְבִלְתִּי negates infinitive, ‘so as not’, ‘in order not’

      The Infinitive Absolute

      Never takes prepositional prefixes or pronominal suffixes. (Only ו or interrogative)

      Comparison with infinitive construct

      QalNif‛alPi‛elPu‛alHitpa‛elHif‛ilHof‛al
      Constמְשֹׁלהִמָּשֵׁלמַשֵּׁלמֻשַּׁלהִתְמַשֵּׁלהַמְשִׁילהָמְשַׁל
      Abs מָשׁוֹל הִמָּשֹׁל נִמְשֹׁלמַשֹּׁל מַשֵּׁלמֻשֹּׁל הִתְמַשֵּׁל הַמְשֵׁל הָמְשֵׁל

      Function

      Functions primarily adverbially. Few parallels with English and subtle nuances for advanced learners.
      1. Sometimes gerundial (-ing)
        1. אָכֹל בָּשָׂר וְשׁתוֹת יָ֣יִן – eating flesh and drinking wine (Is 22.13)
      2. Common. If before its cognate verb: Strengthen, reinforce or intensify verb. (Indeed, surely)
        1. פָּקֹד יִפְקֹד – surely visit (Gen 50.24)
      3. Common. If after its cognate verb: emphasises the duration or continuation of the verbal idea.
        1. שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ – keep on hearing (Is 6.9)
      4. Sometimes used as a substitute for a finite verb. (Such as after an imperative)
        1. זָכוֹר - remember Ex 20.8
      5. [If unclear, often follows preceding verb
        1. If Imperative + Inf. Abs. > Inf Abs functions as imperative
        2. If Inf Cons. + Inf. Abs > Inf Abs functions as Inf Cons.
        3. Is 7.15]

      Vocab

      אָבַד - he perished
      אָסַף - he gathered
      בִּין - to understand, discern
      בָּרַח - he fled
      חָדַל - he ceased
      חָטָא - he sinned, missed the mark
      יָכֹל - he was able
      יָלַד - he begot (children)
      יָסַף - he added
      יָרַד - he went down
      יָרַשׁ - he possessed, subdued
      כּוּן - to be fixed, firm, established
      כָּלָה - he (it) was completed, finished
      [מאן] - (Pi‛el) he refused
      מָאַס - he rejected, despised
      מָכַר - he sold
      [נגד] - (Hif‛il) he told, declared
      נָטָה - he stretched out, extended
      [נכה] - (Hif‛il) he struck, killed
      רוּם - to be high, exalted
      רָפָא - he healed, cured
      רָצָה - he was gracious, took delight in
      שָׂנֵא - he hated
      שָׁתָה - he drank
      קִרְאָה and לִקְרַאת - to meet, encounter
      לְבִלְתִּי or בִּלְתִּי – so as not, in order not

      Lesson 20

      Outline

      Participles

      Participles are verbs used as adjective; or adjective derived from verb, describing participation in verb. Stem determines if participle is active, passive or reflexive.

      [Joosten says Subject + ptp => imperfective. Ptp + Subject => perfective]

      Formation

      קַל – Active

      • Note full/defective holem (except unchangeably-long). (Pe waw/Pe yod prefer long ḥôlem-wāw.)
      • fs ends ה ָ or [vowel +] ת
      • א in Lamed ’Alêf fs becomes quiescent. segol → sere.
      • Strong Lamed Gutturals take patah-furtive.
      • Lamed He ms (except Qal passive) always have segol as final vowel.
      • Lamed He drop ה before plurals
      • בּוֹא becomes בָּא
      מֹשֵׁל (ms) מֹשְׁלִים (mp) מֹשֶׁ֣לֶת (fs) מֹשְׁלוֹת (fp)

      קַל – Passive

      • Sureq is distinct mark of Qal Passive
      • Gutturals prefer compound shewas
      • Lamed He replace ה with י
      מָשׁוּל (ms) מְשׁוּלִים (mp) מְשׁוּלָה (fs) מְשׁוּלוֹת (fp)

      נִפְעַל

      • Nun prefix is distinct mark
      • Strong Lamed Gutturals end with two patahs
      • נְ assumed into following consonant
      נִמְשָׁל (ms) נִמְשָׁלִים (mp) נִמְשֶׁ֣לֶת (fs) נִמְשָׁלוֹת (fp)

      פִּעֵל

      • Note מְ and doubling of middle consonant
      מְמַשֵּׁל (ms)

      פֻּעַל

      • Note מְ ֻ under root consonant and doubling of middle consonant
      מְמֻשָּׁל (ms)

      הִתְפַּעֵל

      • מִתְ prefix and doubling of middle consonant
      מִתְמַשֵּׁל

      הִפְעִיל

      • Note מַ prefix and י□ִ stem
      • Middle vowel verbs (e.g. בּוֹא) use sere in prefix מֵבִיא
      מַמְשִׁיל

      הָפְעַל

      • Prefix is o or u class
      מָמְשָׁל

      Uses

      As adjectives

      Used attributively or predicatively. Insert who, which, that... before attributive adjective use of participle. Insert 'to be' before predicative use. Attributive participles may take definite article.

      As verbs

      Past, present, future time inferred from context. Past participles made explicit by הָיָה; future (often immediate future) follow הִנֵּה

      As nouns

      As nouns, though may take direct object. Insert 'The one(s) who'. Often describes activity (redeemer). Occur in absolute or construct state. ה□ֶ becomes ה□ֵ due to loss of accent.

      Pronominal suffix added to construct state. [follows imperfect pattern?]

      Vocab

      [אמן] - (Nif‛al) he was faithful, (Hif‛il) he believed
      אָרַר - he cursed
      גּוֹאֵל - redeemer
      גָּלָה - he uncovered, revealed
      גָּמָל - camel
      יוֹשֵׁב - inhabitant
      יוֹצֵר - potter
      יָצַר - he formed
      מוֹשִׁיעַ - saviour, deliverer
      מַלְאָךְ - angel, messenger
      נָגַע - he touched, smote
      נָגַשׁ - he approached
      נָהָר - river
      סוֹפֵר - scribe
      פָּדָה - he ransomed, redeemed
      פָּשַׁע - he rebelled, transgressed
      רוֹאֶה - seer, prophet
      רוֹעֶה - shepherd
      רָעָה - he pastured, tended
      שַׂר - prince, ruler
      שָׁאַר - he was left, left over
      שׁוֹפֵט - judge
      שָׁקָה - he drank, (Hif‛il) he watered
      תּוֹעֵבָה - (f) abomination

      Lesson 21

      Outline

      Coordinate relationships

      Waw conjunction

      May be used on any form of verb (unlike waw consecutive, L16). Waw conjunction points on verbs as on nouns (see L6).

      Coordinate relationships

      Two or more verbs linked by waw consecutive or conjunction. First verb governs others, determining time and mood.

      Perfect + Perfect

      Does not alter second verb. Rare.

      Perfect + Imperfect

      Frequent coordinate relationship and only one to use waw consecutive. Imperfect converted, often to past time indicative. Verb may be consequence or sequence. So common, governing perfect sometimes dropped.

      Imperfect + Imperfect

      Sometimes the second verb expresses the outcome or purpose of the first verb.

      Imperfect + Perfect

      2ms, 1cs perfect accents shift to end. Indicative, cohortative, jussive, subjunctive imperfects uses.

      Imperative + Perfect

      Second verb provides a continuation of initial command.

      Imperative + Imperfect

      Second verb sometimes expresses notion of purpose or result. [‘So that’]

      Imperative + Imperfect

      Second verb often expresses purpose or result

      Infinite Absolute + Perfect

      If infinitive absolute is used as an imperative, second verb may be used as imperative also.

      Participle + Perfect

      Participle often describes impending action in near future. Perfect too translated in future time.

      Vocab

      בּוֹשׁ - to be ashamed, confounded
      דָּבַק - he cleaved, clung to
      הָרָה - (she) conceived, became pregnant
      סוּר - to turn aside
      פָּנָה - he turned towards, faced, prepared
      רָחַץ - he washed
      אֹ֣זֶן - (f) ear
      אֱנוֹשׁ - man, mankind
      בֶּ֣גֶד - garment
      בְּרָכָה - (f) blessing
      גּוֹרָל - lot, portion, share
      גֶּ֣פֶן - (f) vine
      גֶּ֣שֶׁם - rain, shower
      זְרֹעַ - (f) arm, strength
      מוֹעֵד - appointed time, place
      עֵד - a witness, testimony, evidence
      עַ֣יִן - (f) eye, fountain
      שֶׁ֣קֶר - deception, falsehood

      Lesson 22

      Outline

      Pe Guttural verbs

      Verbs with א as initial consonant probably behave as Pe ’Alêf.

      Formation

      1. Summary
        1. Same as Strong verbs
          1. Pi‛el, Pu‛al and Hitpa‛el
        2. Always different
          1. Hif‛il and Hof‛al
        3. Sometimes different
          1. Qal and Nif‛al
      2. Changes
        1. Nif‛al initial guttural cannot be doubled, so:
          1. Vowel lengthens and meteg added
            1. Nif‛al (Imperfect, Imperative and Inf. Con.)
              1. יִמָּשֵׁל (Strong), but יֵֽעָמֵד (Pe Guttural)
        2. Gutturals prefer compound shewas.
          1. Initial shewa after Pe Guttural without prefix becomes ḥāṭēp̄-pataḥ.
            1. Qal (2m/fp Perfect, Imperative and Inf. Con.)
          2. Silent shewas under Pe Guttural closing initial syllable become compound, and initial vowel clones and adds meteg. So:
            1. ֲ ֽ ַ in
              1. Qal (Imperfect, except 1cs and stative: ֱ ֽ ֶ )
              2. Nif‛al (Inf. Abs.)
              3. Hif‛il (all except Perfect).
            2. ֱ ֽ ֶ in
              1. Qal (Imperfect 1cs and stative)
              2. Nif‛al (Perfect and Participle)
              3. Hif‛il (Perfect)
            3. ֳ ֽ ָ in
              1. Hof‛al
          3. When compound is followed by full shewa, compound expands to full vowel.
            1. Qal and Hof‛al (Imperfect 2fs, 2/3mp) תַּֽעַמְדִי
            2. Nif‛al and Hof‛al (Perfect 3fs, 3cp)

      Vocab

      אָחַז - he seized, took possession; (Nifal) he was caught
      גָּנַב - he stole
      הָפַךְ - he overturned, changed (Nifal) he was changed, overthrown
      הָרַס - he broke down, destroyed
      חָגַר - he bound, girded
      [חדשׁ] - (Piel) he renewed, repaired
      חָפֵץ - he took delight in, desired
      עָרַךְ - he arranged, set in order
      אָז - then
      אַךְ - surely, only
      אֱמוּנָה - (f) faithfulness, fidelity
      בְּאֵר - (f) well
      בְּכוֹר - firstborn, oldest
      דְּבַשׁ - honey
      חֹק - (f) statute
      לָשׁוֹן - tongue
      מָ֣וֶת - death
      מִזְבֵּחַ - altar, place of sacrifice

      Lesson 23

      Outline

      Pe ʾAlef verbs

      Most Pe ʾAlef verbs

      • Most Pe ʾAlef verbs inflect just as Pe Gutturals
      • Except in Imperfect
        • Preformative vowel is segol in Qal Imperfect and stem vowel is ֱ
          • יֶאֱהָב – Qal Imperfect 3ms
        • ((Except – as with Pe Gutturals:
          • With two vocal shewas in word: first raised to patah
          • And preformative raised to patah with meteg
            • יַֽאַסְפוּ – Qal Imperfect 3mp))

      Second group of Pe ʾAlef verbs

      However, some Pe ʾAlef verbs inflect differently in Qal Imperfect (אָבַד, אָכַל, אָמַר).

      • Qal Imperfect
        • א becomes quiescent when in middle of a word.
          • So BeGaD KeFaT letters after א lose dagesh lene.
        • Preformative vowel becomes holem.
        • Stem vowel becomes patah.
        • אֹא shortened to אֹ in 1cs.
      • Specific changes to אָמַר in Waw Consecutive
        • 3ms, 3fs, 2ms, 1cp shift accent to preformative
          • often causing patah to segol attenuation. יֹאמַר וַיֹּ֣אמֶר
      • Qal Imperative
        • א is not quieseant at start of word
          • Has compound shewa (as guttral)
            • Often hatef-segol for א
          • 2fs/mp as Strong verbs אִמְרִי
      • Qal Infinitive Construct
        • As Ipt 2ms
          • Except for אָמַר with לְ
            • Becomes irregular לֵאמֹר (c.f. לֵאלֹהִים)
      • Participles
        • Same as strong, except fs may match Pe Guttural

      Pe Alef/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • These may have prefix vowel holem in the imperfect
        • אָבָה אָפָה

      Pausal forms of heavily accented words

      • A word with a short vowel in accented syllable will be lengthened when in pause.
        • אֶ֣רֶץ אָ֣רֶץ (and all segolates)

      Vocab

      אָבָה - he was willing
      אָבַל - he mourned
      [אזן] - he listened, heard
      אָמֵץ - he was strong, firm, bold
      אָסַר - he bounded, imprisoned
      אָפָה - he baked
      אָרַךְ - he prolonged
      אָשֵׁם - he committed a wrong, was guilty
      אֶ֣לֶף - ox, thousand
      גּוֹי - nation
      חוּץ - a place outside the house, the outdoors, the street
      מֵאָה - (f) hundred
      פָּנִים - face (faces)
      קֹ֣דֶשׁ - holiness, holy thing, sanctuary
      שְׁנַ֣יִם שְׁתַּ֣יִם - two f
      שַׁלשׁ שְׁלשָׁה - three f
      אַרְבַּע אַרְבָּעָה - four f
      חָמֵשׁ חֲמִשָּׁה - five

      Lesson 24

      Outline

      Ayin Guttural

      • Gutturals cannot be doubled (בָּרַךְ)
        • א ,ר (sometimes ע) have preceding vowel lengthened
        • ה ,ח, often ע doubled by implication
      • Gutturals generally take ‘a’ class vowels
        • Qal Imperfect and Imperative (patah not holem)
        • Piel Perfect 3ms sometimes takes patah not sere
      • Guttural generally take compound shewas
        • Does not apply to ר
        • Perfect 3fs, 3cp
        • Imperfect 2fs, 2/3mp
        • Imperative fs, mp

      [Waw consecutive retards accent in piel]

      Ayin Guttural/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • These have patah in the jussive
        • רָעָה in jussive = יֵרַע

      Vocab

      בָּחַן - he tested
      בָּחַר - he chose
      בָּעַר - he (it) was burned
      זָעַק - he cried out
      [מהר] - he hastened
      נָחַל - he took possession, inherited
      [נחם] - he was sorry, had compassion, suffered grief, repented
      צָחַק - he laughed
      צָעַק - he cried out
      שָׂחַק - he laughed, jested
      שָׁחַט - he killed, slaughtered
      אַחֵר - another, other
      אַחַר - behind, after
      אֹיֵב - enemy
      בָּקָר - herd, cattle
      מִגְדָּל - tower, fortress
      זֶ֣בַח - sacrifice
      מִנְחָה - (f) offering, gift, tribute

      Lesson 25

      Outline

      Lamed Guttural

      Final consonant is ח, ע, or (rarely) הּ not ר. E.g שָׁמַע

      • Without suffix, final consonant must be preceeded by patah, or patah-furtive.
        • Stem vowel changed to patah
        • Except add patah-furtive for:
          • Hifil
          • Qal Inf. Cons.
          • Inf. Abs.
            • Nifal, Pual, Piel, Hifil, Hophal
          • ms Participles
            • Qal (active and passive), Piel, Hitpael
      • With suffixes, same as Strong verbs, except:
        • Stem vowel is patah before נָה suffix
          • Imperfect 2/3fp
          • Imperative 2fp
        • 2fs Perfect stem vowel patah, not shewa
          • שָׁמַ֫עַתְּ

      Vocab

      בָּלַע - he swallowed, consumed
      בָּקַע - he split open
      גָּבַהּ - he was high, proud
      זָרַע - he sowed
      כָּרַע - he knelt, bowed down
      מָשַׁח - he anointed
      סָלַח - he forgave
      פָּגַע - he met, interceded
      פָּתַח - he opened
      קָרַע - he tore
      רָצַח - he killed, murdered
      שָׂבַע - he was satisfied, sated
      בָּמָה - (f) high place
      צוּר - rock
      קֵץ - end
      שֻׁלְחָן - table
      שֶׁ֣מֶשׁ - sun
      תּוֹלְדוֹת - (f) generations

      Lesson 26

      Outline

      Lamed Alef

      • Includes regular, stative and doubly weak verbs
        • Regular
          • בָּרָא
          • מָצָא
          • קָרָא
          • רָפָא
        • Stative
          • יָרֵא
          • מָלֵא
          • צָמֵא
          • שָׂנֵא
          • טָמֵא
        • Double weak
          • חָבָא
          • חָטָא
          • יָצָא
          • נָבָא
          • נָשָׂא
      • א becomes quiescent at end of syllable, so open vowels lengthened beforehand.
      • BeGaD KePaT letters lose dagesh lene after א
      • Stem vowel before consonantal afformatives (Perfect)
        • Qamas in Qal (בָּרָ֫אתִי)
        • Sere otherwise (נִבְרֵ֫אתִי)
      • Stem vowel before quiesent א in Qal Imperfect/Imperative
        • Except fp
          • holem → qamas
        • fp
          • holem → segol
      • Hofal preformative vowel is quibbus
      • Some fs participles are slightly different

      Vocab

      [חבא] - he hid
      טָמֵא - he was unclean
      [נבא] - he prophesied
      צָמֵא - he was thirsty
      קָבַץ - he collected, gathered
      קָדַשׁ - he was holy
      [שׁחת] - he destroyed, corrupted
      שָׁלֵם - he was whole, complete
      כְּלִי - tool, weapon, vessel
      נְאֻם - utterance, oracle
      סָבִיב - around, surrounding
      עֶ֣שֶׂר - ten
      עֲשָׂרָה - (f) ten
      צֶ֣דֶק - righteousness
      צְדָקָה - (f) righteousness
      שֶׁ֣בַע - seven
      שִׁבְעָה - (f) seven
      שַׁ֣עַר - gate

      Lesson 27

      Outline

      Lamed He

      • Without afformative, very uniform
        • ה ָ perfect
        • ה ֶ imperfect and participle
          • Except Qal passive וּי
        • ה ֵ imperatives
        • וֹת infinitive constructs
        • ה ֹ infinitive absolutes
          • Except ה ֵ hifil or hofal (sometimes piel)
          • Occasionally he drops out רָאוֹ
      • With afformatives
        • Vocalic afformatives
          • Perfect 3f final-he becomes ת
          • Other forms drop ה
        • Consonantal afformatives
          • ה becomes י
            • Active י ִ
            • Passive י ֵ
          • Imperfect and Imperative
            • י ֶ
        • [True of pronominal suffixes ??? ]

      (There’s evidence final root was originally י)

      Pe Guttural/Lamed He verbs [Ross]

      • Generally follow the pattern of both types of verbs
        • עָשָׂה עָנָה
      • When ה is apocopated in Hiphil, compound raised to patah (jussive)

      Vocab

      בָּכָה - he wept
      זָנָה - he committed adultery, fornication
      חָזָה - he saw (as in a vision)
      חָלָה - he was sick, weak
      חָנָה - he encamped
      חָרָה - he (it) was hot, burned
      יָרָה - he taught
      כָּסָה - he covered, concealed
      עָנָה - (1) he answered, replied; (2) he was bowed down, afflicted
      צָפָה - he kept watch, spied
      קָנָה - he took possession, acquired, bought
      [שׁחה] - he bowed down, worshipped
      אַמָּה - (f) cubit
      מַחֲנֶה - (m & f) camp, encampment
      מַטֶּה - staff, rod, branch, tribe
      מַעֲשֶׂה - work, deed
      מִשְׁפָּחָה - (f) family clan
      עֹלָה - (f) whole burnt offering

      Lesson 28

      Outline

      Pe Nun

      Changes

      • A nun supported with silent shewa is assimilated into following consonant as follows:
        • Always
          • Hiphil and Hophal.
        • Perfect and Participles
          • Niphal
        • Imperfect (and waw-con)
          • Qal
        • Hofal changes vowel o→u
      • Except
        • Before Ayin Gutturals, nun remains (נָחַל)
          • Except נָחַם

      Groups

      • Most pe nun verbs
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is holem (יִפֹּל)
      • PN+LG (inc. לָקַח) verbs and some regular verbs (נָגַשׁ, נָתַךְ)
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is patah (יִגַּשׁ)
        • Qal Imperative also drops initial נ (גַּשׁ)
      • נָתַן
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is sere Qal imperative drops initial נ
      • PN+LA
        • Qal Imperfect stem vowel is qamas
        • Qal imperative drops initial נ
      • All above without holem as stem vowel
        • Inf. cons. Drops נ, adds ת to form segolate
          • לְ prefix becomes לָ since it’s before stressed syllable
          • final נ assimilated in נָתַן becomes תֵּת

      Vocab

      [נבט] - (Hifil) he saw, looked upon
      נָגַף - he smote, struck
      נָדַח - he drove out, banished, expelled
      נָדַר - he vowed
      [נהל] - (Piel) he led, guided, refreshed
      נָזָה - he (it) spurted, spattered; (Hifil) he sprinkled
      נָטַע - he planted
      נָטַשׁ - he left, forsook
      [נסה] - (Piel) he tested, tried
      נָסַע - he set out, departed, journeyed
      [נצב] - (Nifil) he stationed himself, took his seat; (Hifil) he stationed, set, caused to stand
      נָצַר - he watched, guarded, kept
      [נקה] - he was clean, innocent, guiltless
      [נקם] - he avenged, took vengeance
      [נשׂג] - (Hifil) he reached, overtook, attained
      נָתַץ - he pulled down, broke down
      חַ֣יִל - strength, wealth, army
      נַחֲלָה - (f) possession, inheritance

      Lesson 29

      Outline

      Ayin waw/yod (Hollow verbs)

      • Lexicons list form of Qal Inf Cont. since in Qal Perfect middle vowel usually drops out.
        • וּ
          • כּוּן ; שׁוּב ; קוּם
          • Stative מוּת
        • וֹ
          • בּוֹא (Doubly weak)
          • Stative בּוֹשׁ (preformative vowel in Imp is sere)
        • ִי
          • בִּין
        • Either וּ or ִי
          • שִׂים שוּם
        • Exceptions גָּוַע ,צוה ,קָוָה ,הָיָה , חָיָה
      • Perfect
        • Most verbs follow pattern of קוּם (except stative and וֹ verbs)
        • Qal-Perf-3fs accent differs to Qal-part-act-fs
        • Vocalic suffixes don’t draw accents, except in hofal
      • Other inflections
        • Middle waw is וּ // ִי in most inflections, but וֹ in Inf Abs.
        • Except middle וֹ verbs
      • Preformative vowel is usually long in open syllables
        • Qamas
          • Qal imperfect
          • Nifal Perfect and Participle
          • Hifil Imperfect; Imperative; Inf Con/Abs
        • Sere
          • Hifil Perfect and Participle
        • Suruq
          • Hofal
      • Linking consonants added before נָה endings in Qal imperfect and all consonantal suffixes in Nifal and Hifil perfects
        • Qal imperfect
          • ֶי
        • Nifal and Hifil perfects
          • וֹ
        • These draw accents to themselves, especially before Perfect 2p תֶּם תֶּן
          • Volatises open syllables (e.g. Perfect; Qal-Imp-3fp)
      • ִי verbs
        • Qal appears the same as Hifil in Imperfect
      • When final root consonant = suffix consonant drop combine by doubling
        • מוּת – 2(mfsp) and 1cs (מַָ֫תִּי)
          • N.b.מַ֫תְתָּ (2ms) becomes מַ֫תָּה
      • Qal imperative fp differs
        • בֹּשְׁנָה
      • Intensive and reflexive stems
        • Polel, Polal and Hitpolel
          • Repeat final consonant and supply vowel.
          • כּוּן בִּין sere; שׁוּב patah

      Vocab

      גּוּר - to sojourn
      גִּיל - to rejoice
      דִּין - to judge
      חִיל/חוּל - to whirl, dance, writhe
      לִין/לוּן - to lodge, pass the night, abide
      מוּל - to circumcise
      נוּחַ - to rest, come to rest
      נוּס - to flee
      נוּעַ - to quiver, stagger, stumble
      עוּר - to arouse oneself
      פּוּץ - to be scattered
      רוּץ - to run
      רִיב - to strive, contend
      שִׁיר - to sing
      שִׁית - to put, place, set
      כָּשַׁל - he stumbled
      לָכַד - he seized, captured
      שָׁבַת - he ceased, rested

      Lesson 30

      Outline

      Pe waw/yod

      • Verbs beginning י or ו. Root forms look similar, differentiated only in other stems (esp. Nifal and Hifil)
        • יָבֵשׁ (pe-waw); יָטַב (pe-yod)
      • Pe waw verbs
        • Some retains yod in imperfect
          • יָבֵשׁ ; יָגַע ; יָעַץ ; יָקַץ ; יָרֵא ; יָרָשׁ ; יָשֵׁן
          • Imperfect. Have patah as stem vowel
            • יָבֵשׁ ; יָגַע
            • Forms Hiriq-yod in Qal Imperfect
          • Imperative. Some retain yod, others drop like pe nun verbs
            • יָבֵשׁ (retains); יָרַשׁ (drops)
          • Infinitive Construct. Some retain yod, others drop and add ת forming segolate
            • יָבֵשׁ (retains יְבֹשׁ); יָרַשׁ (drops רֶ֫שֶׁת)
        • Some drop initial yod in imperfect
          • יָדַע ;יָלַד ;יָסַף ; יָצָא ;יָרַד ; יָשַׁב
            • Also הָלַךְ included here
          • Inf cons adds ת to form segolate
          • Stem vowels is sere, except patah before guttural
        • Some contain sibilant
          • יָצַק ;יָצַת ; יָצַג
          • Formed like pe-nun verbs
        • Irregular verbs יָכֹל
          • Imperfetc. Retains וּ
        • Nifal
          • Waw acts as consonant (יִוָּבֵשׁ Imp 3ms)
          • Dipthong in Perfect (נוֹבַשׁ Per 3ms) and Participle
        • Piel, Pual, Hitpael
          • Usually has yod in intensive stems
          • Sometimes waw in hitpael.
        • Hifal and Hofal
          • Retains holem/sureq in stems
      • Pe yod verbs
        • יָטַב; יָלַל ; יָמַן ; יָנַק ; יָקַץ ; יָשַׁר
        • Retains yod in all forms.
          • Hiriq-yod (Qal) or sere-yod (Hifil)
        • These don’t occur in Nifal and Hofal. Only יָשַׁר occurs in Piel and Pual.

      Vocab

      יָבֵשׁ - he dried up, was dry
      יָגַע - he laboured, grew weary
      [ידה] - (Hifil) he praised, confessed, gave thanks
      יָטַב - he did well, was good
      [יכח] - (Hifil) he reproved, rebuked
      יָנַק - he sucked
      יָסַד - he founded, established
      יָסַר - he admonished, chastised
      יָעַץ - he counselled, advised
      [יצב] - (Hitpael) he stationed himself, took his stand
      יָצַק - he poured out
      יָצַת - he kindled, set on fire
      יָשַׁר - he was straight, straightforward, upright
      [יתר] - (Nifal) he (it) was left over, remained
      קָטַר - he burned (offered) incense, caused a sacrifice to smoke
      [שׁרת] - (Piel) he ministered, served
      סָגַר - he shut, close
      [שׁכם] - (Hifil) he arose early

      Lesson 31

      Outline

      Double Ayin

      • Also called geminate verbs.
        • Many verbs of this form, act as strong verbs
      • Final consonant dropped in Qal perfect, imperfect and imperative
        • Except in Transitive verbs Inf con/abs and participles and some transitive verbs in 3per. perfect
      • Transitive verbs
        • 3per. Qal Perfect sometimes doesn’t shorten
        • Linking vowel added before consonantal suffixes
          • Perfect וֹ
            • Draws accents accept in 2p
          • Imperfect/Imperative י ֶ
            • Always accented
            • With accent shifts, 2/3fp becomes תְּסֻבֶּ֫ינָה
        • Accents
          • Accent on stem vowel not afformative
          • Consonants double before afformative
        • Imperfects may appear like ayin waw/yod or pe-nun verbs.
          • Pe-Nun type
            • יִסֹּב, יִדֹּם
        • אָרַר, בָּלַל, גָּלַל, מָדַד, סָבַב, שָׁדַד
      • Intransitive (stative) verbs
        • Final consonant dropped
        • Imperfect
          • preformative vowel ֵ
          • stem vowel ַ
          • Afformatives added like in transitive verbs
        • חָתַת, מָרַר, צָרַר, קָלַל, רָבַב, רָעַע, שָׁמֵם, תָּמַם
      • Nifal verbs
        • Always shortened
        • Final consonant doubled before afformative
        • Linking vowel same as in Qal
        • Vocalic afformatives are never accented
        • Preformative vowel in Perfect and Participle is ָ unless accent shifts from stem vowel ְ
        • Stem vowel is ַ in impefect etc.
        • Nun assimilated
      • Piel, Pual, Hitpael (intensive stems)
        • Often same as for strong verbs
        • Except occasionally polel, pulal, hitpolel
          • Following analogy of Ayin waw/yod verbs
      • Hifil
        • Preformative vowel is
          • Perfect/Participle ֵ
          • Imperfect/etc. ָ
        • Linking vowel same as in Qal
          • Draw accents
            • Preformative vowels in open syllables volatise
          • Except Perfect 2p,
        • Stem vowel ֵ
          • shortened to ִ before consonantal afformatives
          • accented before vocalic afformatives
        • Final cosonant doubles
      • Hofal
        • Formed on analogy of ayin-waw/yod
      • רָעַע is doubly weak

      Vocab

      בָּזַז - he plundered, destroyed
      בָּלַל - he mixed, confounded
      דָּמַם - he was silent, speechless
      [הלל] - (Piel, Hitpael) he praised
      [חלל] - (Nifal), he was polluted, (Hifil) he began
      חָנַן - he was gracious, he showed favour
      חָתַת - he was shattered, dismayed
      מָדַד - he measured
      נָדַד - he fled
      סָבַב - he surrounded, turned about, went away
      צָרַר - he was in distress
      רָנַן - he shouted for joy, cried out
      שָׁדַד - he devastated, destroyed
      שָׁמַם - he was appalled, devastated
      תָּמַם - he (it) was completed
      גְּבוּל - boundary, border
      גִּבּוֹר - hero, mighty one
      קֶ֣שֶׁת - (f) bow

      Composition

      Composition

      For exams, we are expected to know definition from Weingreen and Ross (not Kelley) as well as Set Texts of Genesis 12, 15 and 17.

      Nouns

      • Learn irregular nouns: הָ/הָר
      • Abstract nouns are often feminine, land, belief Gen 15.6-7.
      • Use context to identify collective nouns: sheep, birds (Gen 15.11)

      Translation

      • לֵאמֹר translate as saying, although today often translated opening quotation (, “)
        • וַיֹּאמַר at start of direct speech (semi-pausal)
      • Normally דִּבֵּר + אֶל־ not לְ +. However אָמַר + לְ. “Spoke/said to” (usually)
        • Likewise, קָרָא + אֶל־ or + לְ, not often אֶת־
        • אֶל (verb of direction, motion) for direction not ְל
          • Directive-he takes אֶל not ְל
      • Dative verbs
        • give to - נתן + לְ
        • prayed to – לְ ; e.g, פָּלַל לַיהוה [often, not always]
        • [to do, Week 3.E.4]
      • Don't write pronominal suffix with verbs, instead use direct object. בֵּרַךְ אתִי
      • With
        • בְּ with an instrument
        • עִם ,אֶת with a person
          • אֶת dropped out of use in later Biblical Hebrew, otherwise they are nearly synonymous.
          • [Check, perhaps, עִם is often used for familial relations between person. Often it overlaps with אֵת]
      • On, upon
        • Usually עַל not בְּ
        • Except use בְּ for:
          • ‘on that day’
          • on the top/head of the mountain – בָּהָר
      • מִן – use ּ מִ unless before definite article
      • [Gen 22.16, כִּ֗י with disjunctive accent functions differently.]
      • גַם־הִ֛וא She also.
      • הֲ plus אֵין used in nominal sentences, not לֹא for Do you not...
      • Short words come first; e.g., אֲנִי בְצָרָה not בְצָרָה אֲנִי
      • Waw consecutive
        • often doesn’t double before yod in Piel (and some other yods?). Similar to definite article L5?
        • Some sibilants don’t double, see נָשָׂא
      • The more frequently a word is used, the more frequently it is prone to irregularities!
      • Translation
        • Picking between Qal and Hitpael.
          • For קָבַץ Hithpael is intransitive, so use hitpael for gather together, not Qal.
      • Comparison
        • Smallest in Israel = H+Adj B+Noun, or Adj-Con+Noun
      • (in) where אֲשֶׁר שָׁם
      • (in) which אֲשֶׁר בּוֹ
      • Verbs of knowing have stative quality. Often translated in the present
      • When
        • בְּ / כְּ + Inf con. (hard, don’t use)
        • כִּי + Perfect
        • כַּאֲשֶׁר + Perfect
      • Watch out
        • Use feminine forms on verbs and adjectives with feminine nouns
        • Passive participles ‘you [are] blessed’ אַתְּ בְּרוּכָה
        • Blessed to the LORD לְ is dative not אֶל־
        • you will surely keep -> use 2m not 3m

      Sequence

      • Nouns of time often come before verb, Gen 1.1, בְּרֵשִׁית בָּרָ֣א
      • Waw consecutive used in narrating historic stories, consecutively we did x and then y and then z.
      • Use perfect for background information and if not first position in a clause.
        • had made = pluperfect = background information = event has happened before the time of narrative. So use perfect, not imperfect. Also, the position in clauses. First clauses waw-imperfect, second is then perfect, if it comes second in clause (e.g. after כִּי)
      • Clauses
        • Waw-consecutive only comes in first position in clause, use perfect after [כִּי (that), כַּאֲשֶׁר after, ...]
        • לֹא + [im?]perfect (negative clauses).
          • After a negative clause for ‘but’ use: כִּי / כִּי אִם [Maybe in end of Ross?]
        • אֲשֶׁר + perfect (relative clause).
        • כִּי + perfect (causual clause)
        • (temporal clause)
          • וַיְהִי +אֲשֶׁר or כִּי etc.
            • After he had visted ... etc.
      • Sequence
        • Verb - Subject - Indirect Object (dative) [one word?] - Direct Object (with direct object if name, has suffix, or definite object)
          • Gave - the king - to him - the book
        • If prep + suffix, or object marker + suffix
          • Verb - Object - Subject
          • Since it is considered a lighter word
        • Except if DBR ELHYM (etc.) they start as they are, the object marker/suffix does not come before the Subject
      • Jussive is in clause-initial position
      Learn Ross ch 40. 22.5 hitpalel bow down

      Vocab

      Learn irregular forms, such as אָבִי (L 11)

      Reading

      Practice Tests

      The basis on understanding is Weingreen’s vocab, but things can slip through the net.

      Mistakes

      • Don’t muddle up שָׁכַן with שָׁכַב
      • כִּי אִם but, except
      • Watch out from מִן־ comparison
      • Don’t muddle אוֹתָךְ obj. with sign

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