Syriac Mon 21 Oct 19   (Updated Sat 1 Aug 20)

Syriac

Consonants

LetterNamePronounciation
ܐʾŌlep*
ܒBēṯ
ܓGōmalgive not genis
ܕDōlaṯ*
ܗHē*
ܘWaw*
ܙZain*
ܚḤēṯhush
ܛṬēṯEmphatic t, tongue raised
ܝYūḏ
ܟKōp
ܠLōmaḏ
ܡMīm
ܢNūn
ܣSemkaṯ
ܥʿĒSimilar to ܐ, but sustained with throat constricted
ܦPē (Fē)
ܨṢōḏē*Emphatic s with tongue raised like ܛ.
ܩQūpFurther back than k
ܪRīš*
ܫŠīn
ܬTaw*

Vowels

LetterPronounciation
ܰa
ܳō
ܶe
ܺi
ܽū

Dipthongs

LetterPronounciation
ܘ ܰaw
ܝ ܰay
ܝ ܳōy
ܝܘ ܶew
ܝ ܶey
ܝܘ ܺīw
ܘܗ̱ܝ ܽūī

Independent personal pronouns

Full form


Syriac
Hebrew
3msܗ̣ܽܘהוּאhe/it
3fsܗ̣ܺܝהִיאshe/it
2msܐܰܢ̱ܬatאַתָּהyou
2fsܐܰܢ̱ܬܝatאַתְּyou
1csܐܶܢܳܐenōאֲנִי, אָנֹכִיI
3mpܗ̣ܶܢܽܘܢhenūnהֵם, הֵ֣מָּהthey
3fpܗ̣ܶܢܶܝܢhenēnהֵן, הֵ֣נָּהthey
2mpܐܰܢ̱ܬܽܘܢatūnאַתֶּםyou
2fpܐܰܢ̱ܬܶܝܢatēnאַתֶּן, אַתֵּ֣נָהyou
1cpܚܢܰܢ ܀ ܐܶܢܰܚܢܰܢḥnan, enaḥnanאֲנַ֣חְנוּ, נַ֣חְנוּ, אֲנוּwe

Enclitic form

Form 11b
Form 2
3msܗ̱ܽܘ
ܘ ܀ - ܰ ܘ ܽ -(-ū, -aw)
3fsܗ̱ܺܝ


2msܐܰܢ̱ܬܗ̱ܽܘat (-ū)ܬ ܰ --at
2fsܐܰܢ̱ܬܝܗ̱ܺܝat (-ī)ܬܝ ܰ --at
1csܐ̱ܢܳܐ
-nōܢܳܐ--nō
3mpܐܶܢܽܘܢ
enūn

3fpܐܶܢܶܝܢ
enēn

2mpܐܢ̱ܬܽܘܢܐܶܢܽܘܢ-tūn, (enūn)ܬܽܘܢ --tūn
2fpܐܢ̱ܬܶܝܢܐܶܢܶܝܢ-tēn, (enēn)ܬܶܝܢ --tēn
1cpܚ̱ܢܰܢ
-nanܢܰܢ --nan
Form 1 is used after participles, adjectives, nouns etc.
Form 1b used for ‘you are’

Demonstrative Pronouns

This, these

msܗܳܢܳܐ (ܗܳܢ)hōnō
fsܗܳܕܶܐ (ܗܳܕ)hōḏē
cpܗܳܠܶܝܢhōlēn

That, those

msܗ̇ܰܘhaw
fsܗ̇ܳܝhōy
mpܗ̇ܳܢܽܘܢhōnūn
fpܗ̇ܳܢܶܝܢhōnēn
Old mpܗܳܠܽܘܟ ܀ ܗܳܢܽܘܟhōlūk, hōnūk
Old fpܗܳܠܶܝܟhōlēk

Relative (the one/s which)


msܐܰܝܢܳܐaynō
fsܐܰܝܕܳܐaydō
cpܐܰܝܠܶܝܢaylēn

Suffixed Personal Pronouns


3msܶܗ --ehܘܗ̱ܝ ܰ - -aw
3fsܳܗ̇--ōhܝܗ̇ ܶ --ēh
2msܳܟ --ōḵܝܟ ܰ --ayk
2fsܶܟܝ --eḵܝܟܝ ܰ --ayk
1csܝ --îܝ ܰ --ay
3mpܗܽܘܢ - -hūnܝܗܽܘܢ ܰ --ayhūn
3fpܗܶܝܢ - -hēn ܝܗܶܝܢ ܰ --ayhēn
2mpܟܽܘܢ --ḵūnܝܟܽܘܢ ܰ --aykūn
2fpܟܶܝܢ - -ḵēnܝܟܶܝܢ ܰ --aykēn
1cpܰܢ --anܝܢ ܰ --ayn

Prepositions

ܒܕܽܘܠ – Two of these consonants leads to an a-class vowel being added to initial preposition. ܘܰܠ Otherwise, not vowel (perhaps vocal shewa).

Uses of ܕ

To mean ‘of’ As the relative word To form subordinating conjucations To mean ‘that’, introducing indirect speech like ὅτι For purpose, ‘so that, in order that’, introducing a purpose clause.

With type 1 suffix

ܒ- – in, with, through
ܠ- – to, for
ܡܶܢ – from
ܥܰܡ – with
ܕܺܝܠ- – belonging to
ܠܘܳܠ – towards, near, ‘chez’
ܐܰܝܟ – like
ܒܰܝܢܳܬ – between
ܠܘܽܘܒܰܠ – against, facing
ܠܦܽܘܬ – according to, correspondng to
ܒܶܣܬܰܕ – behind
ܒܳܬܰܕ – after
ܒܽܠ – all of
ܡܶܛܽܠ – because of

With type 2 suffix

ܩܕܳܡ – before
ܒܶܠܢܳܕ – without
ܬܚܽܘܬ – under
ܚܠܳܦ – instead of, on behalf of
ܒܰܠܚܽܘܕ – alone, only
ܨܶܝܕ – towards, near, ‘chez’
ܚܕܳܕ – around
ܒܰܝܢܰܝ – between
ܒܝܰܕ – through, by
ܥܰܠ – upon, against, on account of, concerning
ܐܻܝܬ – there is
ܠܰܝܬ – there is not

Verbs

Pʿal Perfect

Suffixes Example
3ms nil nil ܫܩܰܠ šqal
3fsܬ̣-—aṯܫܶܩܠܰܬ̣ šeqlaṯ
2ms ܬ̇- —t ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ šqalt
2fs ܬ̇ܝ- —t(y) ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܝ šqalt
1cs ܶܬ̣ —ēṯ ܫܶܩܠܶܬ̣ šeqlēṯ
3mp ܩ- —(w)/nil ܫܩܰܠܘ , ܫܩܰܠ šqal
3fp ܝ- —(y)/nil ܫܩܰܠܝ̈ , ܫܩܰܠ šqal
2mp ܬܽܩܢ- —tūn ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܽܘܢ šqaltūn
2fp ܬܶܝܢ- —tēn ܫܩܰܠܬ̇ܶܝܢ šqaltēn
1cp ܢ  ܢܰܢ- —n, —nan ܫܩܰܠܢ , ܫܩܰܠܢܰܢ šqaln, -nan
ܫܩܰܠ – he took

Pʿal Imperfect

Prefixes Example
3ms ܢ — n — ܢܶܫܩܽܘܠ nešqūl
3fs ܬ — t — ܬܶܫܩܽܘܠ tešqūl
2ms ܬ — t — ܬܶܫܩܽܘܠ tešqūl
2fs ܬ — ܝܺܢ t — în ܬܶܫܩܠܺܝܢ tešqlīn
1cs ܐ — ʾe — ܐܶܫܩܽܘܠ ʾešqūl
3mp ܢ — ܩܢ n — ûn ܢܶܫܩܠܽܘܢ nešqlūn
3fp ܢ —ܰܢ n — ôn ܢܶܫ̈ܩܠܳܢ nešqlōn
2mp ܬ — ܩܢ t — ûn ܬܶܫܩܠܽܘܢ tešqlūn
2fp ܬ —ܰܢ t — ôn ܬܶܫܩܠܳܢ tešqlōn
1cp ܢ — n — ܢܶܫܩܽܘܠ nešqūl

Used for the future, not incomplete as in Hebrew. This form also covers the Jussive. ‘He/She will/should, let him/her.’

n- not y- prefix in 3rd person. The old jussive, not imperfect took over, which is n-. Some ancient Syriac inscriptions have y- prefix and l- prefix for jussive. l- prefix found in Babylonian Talmud. L- becomes an n- through sound-shift.

No shewas, ignore grammers, they generally don’t exist.

Pʿal Participles

Pattern Pʿal Active Pʿal Passive
ms nil nil ܫܳܩܶܠ šōqēl ܫܩܺܝܠ šqīl
fs ܳܐ —ō ܫܳܩܠܳܐ šōqlō ܫܩܺܝܠܳܐ šqīlō
mp ܝܺܢ —īn ܫܳܩܠܻܝܢ šōqlīn ܫܩܺܝܠܻܝܢ šqīlīn
fp ܳܢ —ōn ܫܳܩ̈ܠܳܢ šōqlōn ܫܩܺܝ̈ܠܳܢ šqīlōn
Fills the gap where you need the present tense.

Pʿal Imperatives

Example
2ms
ܫܩܽܘܠšqūl
2fs
ܫܩܽܘܠܝ
2mp
ܫܩܽܘܠܽܘܢ, ܫܩܽܘܠܘ
2fp
ܫ̈ܩܽܘܠܶܝܢ, ܫ̈ܩܽܘܠܝ

ܐܻܝܬ , ܗܘܳܐ and composite tenses

ܐܺܝܬ

ܐܺܝܬ – There is, c.f. יֵשׁ
ܐܺܝܬܰܘܗܝ – can also suggest there exists (c.f. John 1.1)
ܐܺܝܬܶܝܗ̇

ܗܘܳܐ

Learn the paradigm for the verb ‘to be’
Suffixes
3ms(ܗ̱ܘܳܐ)ܗܘܳܐ
3fs(ܗ̱ܘܳܬ̣)ܗܘܳܬ̣
2ms(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇
2fs(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܝ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܝ
1cs(ܗ̱ܘܺܝܬ̣)ܗܘܺܝܬ̣
3mp(ܗ̱ܘܰܘ)ܗܘܰܘ
3fp(ܗ̱̈ܘܰܝ)ܗ̈ܘܰܝ
2mp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܘܽܢ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܘܽܢ
2fp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܬ̇ܶܝܢ)ܗܘܰܝܬ̇ܶܝܢ
1cp(ܗ̱ܘܰܝܢ)ܗܘܰܝܢ

Imperfect

Prefixes
3ms(ܢܗܶܐ)ܢܶܗܘܶܐ
3fs(ܬܗܶܐ)ܬܶܗܘܶܐ
2ms(ܬܗܶܐ)ܬܶܗܘܶܐ
2fs(ܬܗܶܝܢ)ܬܶܗܘܶܝܢ
1cs
ܐܶܗܘܶܐ
3mp(ܢܗܽܘܢ)ܢܶܗܘܐܽܘܢ
3fp
ܢܶܗܘ̈ܝܳܢ
2mp(ܬܗܽܘܢ)ܬܶܗܘܽܘܢ
2fp
ܬܶܗܘ̈ܝܳܢ
1cp
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ

Imperatives


ms
ܗܘܺܐ
fs
ܗܘܳܝ
mp
ܗܘܰܘ
fp
ܗܘ̈ܳܝܶܝܢ

Pʿal Participles

PassiveActive
msܗܘܶܐܗܳܘܶܐ
fsܗܰܘܝܳܐܗܳܘܝܳܐ
mpܗܘܶܝܢܗܳܘܝܳܢ
fpܗܰܘ̈ܝܳܢܗܳܘ̈ܝܳܢ

Infinitive

ܡܶܗܘܳܐ

Compound forms

ܟܳܬܶܒ – he is writing, writes, will write, would write
ܟܳܬܶܒ ܗ̱ܘܳܐ – he was writing, wrote
ܢܶܗܘܶܐ ܟܳܬܶܒ – He should write, let him write

Nouns

Emphatic form used for definite nouns. But came to be always used. The construct form in Syriac is generally redundant as they use ‘of’ instead. Peshitta OT more often uses construct form, otherwise it is more arcahaism. ܒ݁ܪ ܕ݁ܐ̱ܢܳܫܳܐ (son of man).
Two genders, numbers, butthree states.

Paradigm

SingularPlural
ACEACE
M---ô-în-ay
F-ô-at-tô-ôn-ôt-ôtô
Mܡܠܶܟܡܠܶܟܡܰܠܟܳܐܡ̈ܰܠܟܺܝܢܡ̈ܰܠܟܰܝܡ̈ܰܠܟܶܐ
Fܡܰܠܟܳܐܡܠܟܰܬܡܰܠܟܬܳܐܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܢܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܬܡ̈ܰܠܟܳܬܳܐ

The Syriac Verb

p‘al

Ground form. (Always has a-vowel in perfect, sometimes e vowel. Always e-vowel on imperfect)

’eṯp‘el

Passive ground form

pa‘‘el

Doubled

’eṯpa‘‘al

Passive doubled

’ap‘el

Causative

’ettap‘al

Passive causative

Many verbs are just in one form, e.g. to speak is doubled. p‘al is most common, fewer pa‘‘el, even fewer ’ap‘el. Doubled forms have not had letters doubled since early times. Passive all start ’et(t). Imperfect same as perfect, but added prefix, same vowels.

Shibbelets swap places with taw.

’eṯ + s > ’esṯ-

’eṯ + š > ’ešṯ-

’eṯ + z > ’ezd-

’eṯ + Ṣ > ’eṣṭ-

Weak verbs

Peculiarities in verbs beginning with ܢܢ and ܝ .

Nun tends to assimilate.

Gutturals

They differ. They like a-vowels.

ܐ

Not many verbs. They like e-vowels, and that often drops off and goes before.

Ayin ܝ ܘ

ܘ is much more common, like Hebrew.

Geminite/Double Ayin verbs

ܥܰܠ causes problems as it looks like ‘to go in’

ܚܶܒ to love

Final Yod/final-olaph verbs

These were final-yod verbs where yod dropped out.

Olaph signifies a-vowel. Like in Hebrew final-he vowels.

Adverbs and Regular Verbs with Object Suffixes

Adverbs forms with ܐ̈ܝܬ suffix

Four consonant verbs

Often take Greek verbs and steal four dominant sounds (categorical) ܩܰܬܪܶܓ

Welcome to my blog.
Subscribe to Staying on Piste via email

Subscribe